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Kr\        J 

\    ' 


V>     \ 


SSfsJ 


Mimfr 


-J 


t 


'  -) 


•  •  9    • 


rfl 


« 
' 


ENGLISH    EDITION 


OF 


A.    IVANOFF'S 

EUSSIAN    GEAMMAE. 


(A.  IVANOFFS) 

RUSSIAN  GRAMMAR 


(IQtk  EDITION— U5tk  THOUSAND). 


TRANSLATED,  ENLARGED,  AND  ARRANGED 


FOR  THE 


USE  OF  ENGLISH  STUDENTS  OF  THE  RUSSIAN 

LANGUAGE 


BY 


WALTER    E.    GOWAN, 

MAJOK   IN   HEH   MAJESTY'S  INDIAN   ABUT. 


LONDON : 
KEGAN   PAUL,  TRENCH  &  CO.,  i,  PATERNOSTER  SQUARE, 

1882. 


LONDON : 

FEINTED  BY  GILBERT  AND   BIYINGTON,  LIMITED, 
ST.  JOHN'S   SQUARE,   CLEEKENWELL. 


THE   ENGLISH   EDITION   OP   THIS   GRAMMAR 
18,   BY    GRACIOUS   PERMISSION, 

MOST  RESPECTFULLY  DEDICATED 

TO 
HER  ROYAL  AND   IMPERIAL   HIGHNESS 

MARIE   ALEXANDROVNA, 
DUCHESS    OP    EDINBURGH, 

AND 

IMPERIAL    PRINCESS    OP    RUSSIA. 


TABLE  OF  CONTENTS  (OaaweHie). 


FA.OB 

J.  HE  FACE    .  «  •  .        .     «  •  •  •  •  •  •  .        Vll 


y     .  face  xi 


NOTE  ON  THE  RUSSIAN  LANGUAGE ix 

RUSSIAN,  ENGLISH,  AND  GREEK  ALPHABETS 

CLASSIFICATION  OF  RUSSIAN  LETTERS    . 

RUSSIAN  LETTERS  AND  THEIR  SOUNDS  .        .        .        .        .       xi — xx 

/PERMUTATION  OF  RUSSIAN  LETTERS xxi 

EPENTHESIS,  OR  INSERTION  OF  LETTERS        ...  .^ 

PROSTHESIS,  OR  PREFIXING  OF  LETTERS       .        .        *        .        .     xxi 

f  & 
APOCOPE,  OR  ABRIDGMENT  OF  VOWELS,  &c. .        .        .        .        .    xxjj 

SYNCOPE,  OR  CONTRACTION  OF  WORDS  BY  STRIKING  OUT  LETTERS' 
CLASSIFICATION  OF  RUSSIAN  WORDS       ......    xxii 

RUSSIAN  WORDS  TRACEABLE  TO  ROOTS xxii 

ROOTS  OF  REGULAR  RUSSIAN  VERBS      .        .        .        .  .  xxiii 

INTRODUCTION 1 

FIRST  PART: —  » 

ETYMOLOGY 1 — 4 

THE  NOUN  SUBSTANTIVE 4 — 26 

THE  NOUN  ADJECTIVE .  26 — 39 

THE  NOUN  OF  NUMBER  OR  NUMERAL    ....  39 — 45 

THE  PRONOUN 45 — 51 

THE  VERB 51—78 

THE  ADVERB 78—81 

THE  PREPOSITION 81,  82 

THE  CONJUNCTION 82,  83 

THE  INTERJECTION 83 


(     vi     ) 


PAGB 


SECOND  PABT  : — •• 

SYNTAX     .        

PBOPOSITIONS 

THEIE  PEINCIPAL  PAETS 

THEIE  SECONDABY  PAETS        ,        .        . - 

THE  CONSTEUCTION  OF  A  PEOPOSITION  . 

THE  SIGNIFICATION  OF  A  PBOPOSITION  . 

THE  DIVEBSITY  OF  EXPEESSION  IN  A  PEOPOSITION 

CONSTEUCTION  OF  COMPOUND  PEOPOSITIONS  . 

PEBIODICAL  AND  BEOKEN  SPEECH  .... 

CONCOED  OF  WOEDS 

GOVEENMENT  OF  WOEDS          .       ,. 

EMPLOYMENT  OF  CASES  WITHOUT  PEEPOSITIONS 
EMPLOYMENT  OF  CASES  WITH  PBEPOSITIONS  . 

DlSTEIBUTION  OF  WOEDS 

MAEKS  OF  PUNCTUATION 

THIED  PAET: — 

OETHOGEAPHY 

EMPLOYMENT  OF  CAPITAL  LETTEES 

EMPLOYMENT  OF  SMALL  LETTEBS    .... 

PBOPEE  USE  OF  SEPAEATE  WOEDS 

THE  HYPHEN 

DISJOINTING  OF  WOBDS 

CONTBACTION  OF  WOBDS 


}  84—90 


90—93 

93—101 

94—99 

99—101 

101—104 

104—108 

108 

108—110 

11O-118 

118, 119 

119,  120 

120 

120 


PREFACE. 


IN  the  belief  that,  amongst  the  gradually  increasing  number  of 
English  officers  who  are  recognizing  the  importance  of  the  study 
of  Russian,  a  demand  exists  for  a  Modern  Russian  Grammar,  it 
occurred  to  me  that  I  might  profitably  devote  some  time  and 
labour,  during  my  leave  from  India,  towards  endeavouring  to  pro- 
vide for  this  want. 

The  method  of  setting  about  such  a  task  seemed  to  me  to  be  one 
of  two  : — 1st.  I  might  either  compile,  from  the  few  existing  works 
in  the  Russian  and  English  languages,  a  guide  of  the  kind  required, 
and  thereby  produce  that  which  would  of  necessity  be  imperfect, 
and  at  the  same  time  far  from  original.  2nd.  Or  I  might  take  a 
practical  work,  by  a  recognized  Russian  Grammarian,  and  try  and 
adapt  it  to  the  special  requirements  of  English  Students  of  the 
Russian  Language. 

The  latter  course  I  have  endeavoured  to  follow,  and  the  scope  of 
the  enlargement  and  arrangement  of  the  Russian  Grammar,  which 
I  have  selected  for  the  purpose,  may  be  thus  explained : — 

The  original  text,  having  been  written  by  a  Russian  for  Russians 
contains  no  Alphabet,  or  explanations  of  the  various  sounds  of  the 
several  letters.     Essentials  under  this  and  other  heads  have  been 
supplied  in  the  first  twenty  pages  of  the  English  edition. 

Russian  words  occurring  throughout  the  English  text  have  been 


(     viii     ) 

accentuated,1  so  as  to   ensure,  as   far  as   possible,  a  correct  pro- 
nunciation. 

The  final  letters  or  syllables  of  words,  marking  the  changes  to 
which  each  is  subject  either  through  declension  or  conjugation, 
have  been  printed  in  a  different  type,  so  that  the  radical  letters  may 
stand  out  more  clearly.  Prefixes  have  been  similarly  dealt  with. 
The  principle  of  reducing  every  simple  and  compound  word  to  a 
root  has  been  thus  kept  in  view. 

Mr.  Henri  Biola,  Professor  of  Russian  at  the  Staff  College,  has 
been  good  enough  to  help  in  the  revision  of  the  pages  of  a  Grammar 
which  it  is  hoped  will  be  of  use  in  enabling  Englishmen  (and 
especially  English  officers)  to  become  better  acquainted  with  the 
language  of  a  great  and  growing  country. 

W.  E.  G. 


1  N.B. — Russian  words  in  this  Grammar  which  begin  with  capital  letters,  and 
which  are  unaccented,  take  the  accent  on  the  initial  letter. 


(  fc 


NOTE. 

THE  Russian  language  is  a  dialect  of  the  Slavonian,  the  common  tongue  of  a 
large  family  of  nations  descended  from  the  Scythians,  but  whose  earlier  origin  is 
unascertained.  Many  of  the  modern  roots  are  Sanscrit,  Greek,1  Latin,  and 
German.  The  spoken  language  incorporated  many  words  from  the  Polish  and 
other  Slavonian  dialects,  the  Tartar  and  Mongolian.  The  written  character  is  a 
very  neat  one ;  and  the  printed  has  much  resemblance  to  the  Greek,  some  also 
to  the  Latin.  The  Alphabet  is  as  nearly  phonetic  as  can  be  desired,  and  has  the 
advantage  of  expressing  complex  consonantal  sounds.  That  Russian  literature" 
has  not  yet  contributed  its  full  quota  to  the  great  hive  of  human  learning  should 
be  mainly  ascribed  to  over-government,  to  its  being  yet  in  the  youth  of  its  exist- 
ence, and  still  in  a  condition  which  compels  it  to  borrow  much.  When  civiliza- 
tion shall  have  taken  firm  root  in  all  classes,  then  Russia  will  no  doubt  enlarge 
her  pretensions ;  but  the  time  is  corning,  and  the  minds  to  do  the  work  are 
ripening. — Extract  from  the  "  Encyclopedia  Britannica" 


1  In  the  9th  century,  two  Greek  Missionaries  were  sent  into  Moravia  by  the  Byzantian 
Emperor,  Michael  III.,  to  translate  the  Bible,  and  other  theological  works,  into  Slavonian. 
Finding  letters  unknown  to  the  inhabitants,  they  composed  an  Alphabet  after  the  model  of  the 
Greek,  with  a  few  additional  characters,  to  express  the  sounds  peculiar  to  the  Slavonian 
language. — Extract  from  the  Introduction  to  "  Heard1  s  Practical  Grammar  o  the  Russian 
Language"  St.  Petersburg,  1827. 


RUSSIAN  LETTERS   AND  THEIR  SOUNDS. 


VOWELS  l  AND  SEMI- VOWELS. 


English 
letters. 

English 
words. 

,4 

are,  far. 

U 

am,  fat. 

r 

own,  alone. 

u 

fate. 

(1)  The  hard  vowel  A,  a,  is  represented  by 


The  ordinary  sound  of  the  Russian  a  is  that  of  d :  Ex.  M«TB, 
mother,  pronounced  mat*. 

It  has  also  the  sound  of  a  when  found  at  the  end  of  certain 
words  and  not  accented :  Ex.  6a6a,  old  woman,  pronounced  baba. 

In  the  inflection  aio  of  adjectives,  if  it  be  accented,  its  sound  is 
that  of  d :  Ex.  cyxaro,  gen.  of  cyxoa,  dry,  pronounced  sookhova. 

NOTE. — When  it  is  unaccented,  and  follows  certain  consonants 
(JK,  H,  in,  m),  its  sound  is  that  of  d:  Ex.  jK#pa,  heat;  H«CBI,  hours; 
lUfluyirb,  a  wag ;  maiKy,  I  spare,  from  m«^HTB ;  pronounced  j«ra, 
tchasoui,  shaloon,  shtshoj'od. 


English 
letters. 


English 
words. 


ya  or  ya    yard,  yarrow. 

The  soft  vowel  fl,  n,  is  represented  by-J  i 

a  made. 

•a  solar. 

"When  it  is  accented,  and  in  any  part  of  a  word  or  syllable,  its 
sound  is  that  of  yea  :  Ex.  yhia,  ditch ;  M/ZCO,  meat ;  3ap/z,  dawn  :  pro- 
nounced y«ma,  myaso,  zarya. 

When  not  accented,  and  at  the  end  of  words,  its  sound  is  that  of 
y« :  Ex.  BpeM/z,  time,  pronounced  vremya. 

1  In  the  pronunciation  of  Russian  vowels  it  should  be  noticed  whether  the  word 
in  which  they  occur  is  isolated,  whether  the  vowel  itself  is  accented,  and  whether  it 
begins  a  syllable. 


When  not  accented,  and  at  the  beginning  of  words  or  syllables,  its 
sound  is  that  of  ye:  Ex.  /Zflpo,  kernel;  4eB#rt,  nine:  pronounced 
^dro,  dev^tft*. 

After  a  consonant,  and  not  accented,  it  has  the  sound  of  a :  Ex. 
BflJKy,  I  tie  (from  Basalt),  pronounced  vdjoo. 

The  letter  H,  in  the  suffix  en,  of  pronominal  and  other  verbs,  is 
pronounced  sa :  Ex.  ciapait^,  to  endeavour ;  represented  thus — 
staratsfl. 

English  English 

letter.  words. 

(3)  The  hard  vowel  B,  9,  is  represented  by  e          f  enmity> 

(let. 

This  letter,  and  not  e,  is  used  at  the  beginning  of  certain  Russian 
words,  and  of  foreign  words  in  use  in  the  Russian  language,  and 
also  after  a  vowel :  Ex.  aa  !  ho  !  axt !  hey !  S'TOTB,  this,  &c. ; 
aKBaiopt,  the  Equator ;  no^Tt,  poet ;  pronounced  ei,  gkh.  <?tot, 
tfkvator,  potft. 

English  English 

letters.  words. 

ye  yes. 

yo  yoke, 

yo  yonder. 

6  sop. 

i  sit. 

e  spell. 


(4)  The  soft  vowel  E,  e,  is  represented  by 


At  the  commencement  of  words  or  syllables,  and  after  a  vowel, 
its  sound  is  that  Q^  ye:  Ex.  euva,  scarcely;  BCJHKOe,  great  (neut.  form 
of  BaJHRia)  :  pronounced  y<?dva  and  0eleekqy£ 

When  it  is  accented  it  takes  the  sound  of  yd  or  yo :  Ex.  &IKE,  a 
fir-tree ;  iB^'pAO,  firmly  ;  pronounced  ydlka  and  tvyorda. 

In  such  cases  in  this  Grammar  it  will  be  found  marked  with  two 
dots  instead  of  the  ordinary  accent  mark. 

When  accented,  and  found  after  the  consonants  w,  u,  w,  114  and  ^, 
it  has  the  sound  of  8:  Ex.  JK£IHB,  gall,  pronounced  joltch*,  and 
marked  as  above  indicated. 

After  a  consonant,  when  not  accented,  its  sound  is  that  of  i :  Ex. 
HteHa,  wife,  pronounced  jifna. 

After  a  consonant  (other  than  those  specified  above),  when 
accented,  its  sound  is  that  of  e  :  Ex.  CM^pib,  death ;  c^p^ue,  heart ; 
pronounced  sm#rtr  and  smltse. 


NOTE. — The  vowel  e  is  used,  instead  of  9,  in  the  following 
Russian  words  : — npo^Kn.,  project ;  pe^cipt,  register ;  tf#ecT>,  sword- 
hilt  ;  etfpeHiop'L,  a  corporal,  &c. ;  which  are  pronounced  pro£kt, 
re^str,  ^fes,  <?freitor,  &c. 

(5)  The  hard  vowel  LI,  bi,  has  no  exact  equivalent  in  English. 
It  has  a  hollow  or  muffled  sound,  and  its  true  pronunciation  can 
only  be  seized  by  hearing  it  from  the  mouth  of  a  Russian. 

After  the  letters  6,  <?,  M,  rc,  $£,  its  sound  resembles  the  French  oui 
pronounced  very  shortly,  or  that  of  the  English  we  :  Ex.  rpn6&/ 
(plur.  of  rpii6T»,  a  mushroom) :  6bi,  you ;  MM,  we ;  cnonw  (plur.  of 
cnom>,  a  sheaf)  :  pronounced  gribo^*,  voui,  mom,  snap0wz,  &c. 

After  other  consonants  its  sound  is  that  of  the  English  uee :  Ex. 
Cbmt,  a  son,  pronounced  sueen. 

NOTE. — This  vowel  may  always  be  distinguished  from  u  by  its 
thicker  sound.  It  occurs  in  the  genitive  case  singular,  and 
nominative  case  plural,  of  substantives  ending  in  a,  and  in  the 
nominative,  plural,  of  those  ending  in  ff. 

English  English 

letters.  words. 

f        ^  *11 

1  ill. 

(6)  The  soft  vowel  u  is  represented  by  the  J  ra* 

ye 

oui 

Its  ordinary  sound  at  the  commencement  of  words  and  syllables  is 
that  of  i :  Ex.  M#TH,  to  go  ;  pronounced  z'dtee :  and  also  in  the  word 
MWpT>,  peace,  pronounced  nur. 

At  the  commencement  of  certain  cases  of  the  pronoun  of  the 
third  person  it  bears  the  sound  of  a  diphthong:  Ex.  %xt,  of  them, 
theirs,  pronounced  cekh. 

After  the  semi-vowel  &,  it  has  the  sound  of  ye  :  Ex.  ciara*  (plur. 
of  ciaiBfl,  an  article),  pronounced  statye. 

NOTE  1. — After  a  preposition  ending  in  »,  it  takes  the  thicker 
sound  of  bi :  Ex.  npe^&w^ymiH,  preceding,  pronounced  pred<w- 
dooshtshii,  &c.  Indeed,  some  writers  substitute  the  letter  bi  for 
the  combined  letters  5w  shown  in  the  above  example. 

NOTE  2. — Many  writers  retain  u  in  all  words  composed  of  the 
preposition  npu  and  a  word  commencing  with  a  vowel:  Ex. 
npwofimaxfc,  to  communicate ;  npwixaTL,  to  arrive,  &c.  But  it  is 
more  regular  to  change  tlie  «  into  i,  and  to  write  such  words  thus : 
np/oSmaii,  and  npeixaiB,  &c. 


English  English 

letter.  words. 

(7)  The  soft  vowel  /, »,  is  represented  by  the        i 

Its  ordinary  sound  is  that  of  the  English  i :  Ex.  JH.MH,  lily,  pro- 
nounced leelfya. 

Before  a  consonant  this  vowel  is  only  met  with  in  one  word  in 
the  whole  of  the  Russian  language,  viz.  M?'pt,  universe,  pronounced 
nur,  and  which  should  not  be  confounded  with  the  word  Mttpt, 
peace  (see  second  illustration  of  the  ordinary  sound  of  u). 

NOTE  1. — The  vowel  i  is  used  instead  of  u,  of  which  it  is,  indeed, 
a  shorter  form,  before  all  vowels  and  before  the  semi- vowel  u  :  Ex. 
cie  (neut.  form  of  ceil,  this  or  that)  :  npeyqaiL,  to  accustom ; 
npziiTHbiH,  agreeable ;  remn,  genius,  &c. 

NOTE  2. — The  letters  u  and  *  are  exactly  similar  in  sound;  the 
first  is  used  before  consonants,  and  the  second  before  vowels  :  Ex. 
A(wmHa,  a  valley ;  /mb,  July ;  MijtH^qa,  a  mill ;  Hieme,  reading ; 
BMUiHfl,  a  cherry;  HacHJiee,  violence. 

English        English 
letters.          words. 

f     6  no. 

(8)  The  hard  vowel  0,  o,  is  represented  by    <     6  not. 

C     &  was. 

The  ordinary  sound  of  this  letter  is  that  of  the  English  o  or  8 : 
Ex.  flOMa,  of  a  house,  or  the  idiom  for  "  at  home ;"  KOJOKOJT.,  a  bell  : 
pronounced  doma  and  kolokol. 

When,  however,  it  occurs  in  a  syllable  upon  which  the  accent 
does  not  fall,  its  pronunciation  is  that  of  the  English  a :  Ex. 
xopoiiio,  well,  pronounced  Marasho. 

English         English 
letters.  word. 

(9)  The  hard  vowel  Y,  y>  is  represented  by     oo          moon. 

The  sound  of  this  letter  resembles  that  of  the  English  do  or  08 
Ex.  6ypfl,  tempest ;  r^6a,  creek,  bay ;  pronounced  biwrya  and  gooba. 

English       English 
letters.         words. 

(LO)  The  soft  vowel  10,  H>,  is  represented  by 

At  the  beginning  of  words  or  syllables  the  sound  of  this  letter  i 
that  of  the  English  y  u  :  Ex.  wrt,  south,  pronounced  .yr/g. 


At  the  end,  or  in  the  middle,  of  words  or  syllables,  its  sound  is 
that  of  the  English  u  :  JEx.  Moftjiw,  I  love,  pronounced  \ub\u. 

(11)  The  medium  vowel  #,  /&,  has  for  the  most  part  the  same 
sounds  as  the  Russian  E,  e  (see  above,  letter  No.  4),  viz.  that  of  the 
following1  English  letters  :  ye  in  the  word  yes,  and  of  yo  or  yeo  in  the 
words  yoke  or  yonder  and  y<?<?man,  and  also  that  of  ay  in  the  word  may. 

At  the  commencement,  and  sometimes  in  the  middle,  of  words 
and  syllables,  its  sound  is  that  of  ye :  Ex.  /&CTb,  to  eat ;  H/&n>,  no, 
not ;  pronounced  yest1  and  ny<?tt. 

When  accented  it  has  the  sound  of  yeo  only  in  the  words  3B/&3£bi 
(plur.  of  3fii>3Aa,  a  star) ;  rn/b3^a  (plur.  of  rflfe^o,  a  nest) ;  crapa  (plnr. 
ofci>A.i6,  a  saddle), &c.,  and  their  derivatives;  pronounced  zvy#5zdwi, 
gn^ozda,  sy<?odla.  Also  UB/6.n>,  past  tense  of  UBiiCTH,  to  blossom ; 
o6p/&.n>,  past  tense  of  o6pi>CTH,  to  acquire ;  pronounced  tsv^ol  and 
abr^tfol,  &c. 

When  accented  and  at  the  end,  and  sometimes  in  the  middle,  of  a 
word  or  syllable,  its  sound  is  that  of  ay :  Ex.  Ha  cmi/6,  on  the  table 
(from  CTO.ii))  ;  B/&pa,  faith ;  pronounced  na  stolay  and  vdyra. 

NOTE. — As  a  general  rule,  it  may  be  observed  that  when  a 
primitive  word  or  root  is  written  with  rc>,  that  vowel  is  retained  in 
all  its  derivatives. 

(12,  13,  14)  The  semi- vowels  &,  &,  w,  have  no  separate  sounds  of 
their  own. 

Siffce  no  Russian  word  can  end  with  a  consonant,  the  hard  or 
soft  semi-vowel,  "6  or  &,  forms  the  termination  of  such  as  do  not 
end  with  a  vowel :  Ex.  rjar6^5,  a  verb ;  BiiB&,  a  branch,  &c. 

The  hard  semi-vowel  5,  though  mute,  gives  to  the  consonant 
which  precedes  it  a  strong  and  dry  sound,  as  though  it  were 
double.  It  causes,  too,  a  feeble  consonant  to  be  articulated  like  its 
corresponding  strong  consonant:  Ex.  CTaH8,  stage,  station;  BH3&, 
elm  ;  KpOBS,  roof;  inecitf,  pole,  perch  ;  6pai&,  brother,  &c. ;  pronounced 
stann,  vya$s}  krq^*,  shes^,  bra^. 

In  the  prefixes,  into  the  composition  of  which  the  hard  semi- 
vowel &  enters,  it  is  only  retained  before  the  vowels  e,  u,  /&,  TO,  u : 
Ex.  oosmHBHtiH,  objective;  Bff/6xaiB,  to  enter;  npw^ymiH,  pre- 
ceding ;  a4570Tafln>,  aide-de-camp ;  ofo/ZBHTB,  to  announce,  &c. 

The  soft  semi- vowel  6  may  be  said  to  be  a  modified  form  of  u. 
It  gives  to  the  consonant  which  precedes  it  a  soft  and  liquid  sound : 
Ex.  cian&,  arise  (imp.  mood  of  ciaHOBHTLca) ;  BS3&,  swamp,  band ; 


KPOB&,  blood;  mecT&,  six;  6pai&,  to  take;  pronounced  staw1,  vyaz*, 
kro0*,  shes^,  bra/,  leaving  the  original  sound  of  the  final  u  to  melt 
away  in  the  mouth.  In  the  middle  of  a  word  or  syllable  the  same 
process  takes  place. 

NOTE  1. — The  semi-vowel  &  cannot  be  placed  either  after  the 
guttural  letters  t,  K,  x,  or  the  liquid  14.  It  may  appear,  however, 
after  any  of  the  other  consonants,  and  that,  too,  in  the  middle  of  a 
word  :  Ex.  Bec&Ma,  very ;  CKOJ&KO,  how  much,  how  many,  &c. 

NOTE  2. — When  the  letter  A  occurs  before  the  termination  nymi>, 
the  soft  semi- vowel  &  is  inserted :  Ex.  KOJOTB,  to  pierce,  KOJ&nyTL ; 
cipkiflTb,  to  fire,  CTpiM&HyTB,  &c. 

NOTE  3. — The  importance  of  distinguishing  between  the  hard 
and  soft  semi-vowels  &  and  &  will  be  seen  by  a  reference  to  the 
following  words,  the  signification  of  which  depends  on  the  pro- 
nunciation of  the  final  consonant: — 

6pai5,  brother;  6pai&,  to  take. 

Bass,  an  elm ;  BH3&,  a  bog,  band. 

K.iaA5,  a  treasure ;  KjaA&,  cargo. 

KpOBff,  a  roof;  KpOB&,  blood. 

Mai5,  mate  (at  chess) ;  Max&,  mother, 

nepers,  a  finger;  nepci&,  earth. 

j,  a  raft ;  IUOT&,  flesh. 

5,  heat;  DBU&,  dust. 

CTO.I&,  a  table;  CTOJ&,  so  much. 

}fro.i5,  a  corner;  ^roj&,  coal  (charcoal), 

i^ntf,  a  flail ;  U^n&,  a  chain. 

IH6CT&,  a  pole ;  ineci&,  six. 

merojtf,  a  goldfinch ;  meroJ&,  a  f°P« 

&c.,  &c. 

The  soft  semi-vowel  u  is  always  found  after  a  vowel,  and  is  but  a 
shortened  form  of  u.  Its  pronunciation  is  very  brief,  and,  in  con- 
junction with  the  vowel  which  precedes  it,  it  forms  but  one  syllable : 
Ex.  &<m,  give  (imp.  mood  of  ^aBaib)  ;  MO&,  my,  mine ;  pronounced 
dar,  mo*,  &c. 

CONSONANTS.1 

(15)  The  labial  and  strong  consonant  J7,  n>  is  in  sound  similar  to 
the  English  p  :  Ex.  rco/n>,  a  priest,  pronounced  j»o#e. 

1  In  the  pronunciation  of  Russian  consonants,  it  should  be  observed  whether  the 
following  vowel  is  hard  or  soft,  and  whether  such  vowel  terminates  the  wcrd  cr 
syllable. 


(     xvii     ) 

(16)  The  ordinary  sound  of  the  feeble  consonant  B,  6,  is  that  of 
the  English  I. 

It  moreover  takes  the  sound  of  its  corresponding  strong  consonant 
n  at  the  end  of  words  or  syllables  terminating  with  the  hard  semi- 
vowel »  and  before  any  strong  consonant  :  Ex.  6o<ft>  bean  ;  otfrnpaTh, 
to  rub  round  ;  pronounced  bopp  and  ajotirat*. 

(17)  The  sound  of  the  labial  and  strong  consonant  (p  is  that  of 
the  English  /or  ph  :  Ex.  ^panrt,  a  beau  or  fop,  pronounced  /rant. 

(18)  The  ordinary  sound  of  the  labial  and  feeble  consonant  B,  e, 
is  that  of  the  English  v  :  Ex.  fiipa,  faith,  pronounced  payra. 

It,  moreover,  takes  the  sound  of  its  corresponding  strong  consonant 
$  at  the  end  of  words  or  syllables  terminating  with  the  hard  semi- 
vowel g  and  before  any  strong  consonant  :  Ex.  pOtfT),  ditch  ;  tfiiiopHHirb, 
Tuesday  ;  pronounced  roff  and  /tornik. 

(19)  The  ordinary  sound  of  the  guttural  and  strong  consonant 
K,  Ky  is  that  of  the  English  k  and  of  e  in  certain  examples. 

Moreover,  before  the  feeble  consonants  6,  d,  m,  3,  it  takes  the 
sound  of  its  corresponding  feeble  consonant  i  :  Ex.  /TL  Bory,  to  God  ; 
Afb  floftpy,  to  the  good  ;  /n>  3eMai>,  towards  the  earth  ;  pronounced 
//'bohoo,  ^dabroo,  ^zemlay,  &c. 

Before  the  strong,  consonants  K,  m,  v,  it  receives  the  aspirated 
articulation  of  x  :  Ex.  «r>  KOMy  ?  towards  whom  ?  /fro  ?  who  ?  KG 
y  ?  towards  whom  ?  —  pronounced  ^omoo,  ^to,  ^tchemoo,  &c. 


(20)  At  the  beginning,  and  in  the  middle,  of  certain  words  the 
guttural  and  feeble  consonant  F9  ^,  preserves  the  sound  of  the  English 
cj  :  Ex.  ^pOM•b,  thunder;  aepSt,  coat  of  arms;  enCiHy,  I  will  perish  ; 
pronounced  $rom,  ^erb,  ^eebnoo. 

It  has  also  other  sounds.  At  the  end  of  words  and  before  the 
consonant  m  it  takes  the  sound  of  its  corresponding  strong  consonant 
K  :  Ex.  MOZT»,  I  could  (from  MOIL),  pronounced  mo/£. 

It  is  aspirated  in  the  following  words  :  B6^a,  of  God  ;  /"ocno/jb, 
Lord  ;  6.iaeo,  good,  well  ;  pronounced  B6^a\,  .Saspod1,  bla^o. 

In  the  words  Eozt,  God,  y66tt  (it  is)  wretched;  also  before  a 
strong  consonant  (#,  m,  n,  &c.),  and  in  foreign  words  ending  in  ptt, 
such  as  CTpac6yjtM5,  Strasbtfwy,  it  takes  the  aspirated  sound  of  the 
strong  consonant  x,  which  may  be  represented  by  kJi.  Hence  the 
above  words  are  pronounced  BoH,  oobo^,  StrasbourM. 

In  the  terminations  cno,  Hto,  ow  and  eio  of  adjectives  arid  of 

b 


(     xviii     ) 

pronouns,  its  sound  is  that  of  the  English  v  :  Ex.  Kpaceazo,  of  red ; 
CHHJMO,  of  blue  ;  o^HC^o,  of  one  ;  Bcezo,  of  all ;  pronounced  krasnava, 
seenya^a,  adnavo,  vsevo. 

In  foreign  words  adopted  in  the  Russian  language  it  is  pronounced 
either  as  the  English  g  or  k,  according  to  the  sound  of  the  letter 
which  it  replaces  :  Ex.  ^pa^ia,  grace ;  ^6c^HTaJB,  hospital ;  pronounced 
yratsiya,  hospital . 

(21)  The  sound  of  the  guttural  and  strong  consonant  X,  x,  is 
that  of  kh  :l  Ex.  0paivn>,  temple,  church ;  pronounced  Mramm. 

(22)  The  ordinary  sound  of  the  dental  and  strong  consonant 
T,  m,  is  that  of  the  English  t :  Ex.  me-iira,  a  cart  or  waggon,  pro- 
nounced felayga. 

Before  the  feeble  consonants  6,  i,  d,  OK,  3,  this  letter  takes  the 
sound  of  its  corresponding  feeble  consonant  d :  Ex.  6mj£Lri,  I  have 
surrendered ;  O^SLIBT.,  recall ;  pronounced  o^r/al ;  odzwiff. 

In  words  wherein  cm  is  followed  by  «,  the  letter  m  is  not  pro- 
nounced :  Ex.  nocmubiu,  abstinent;  ^acm H bin,  private  ;  pronounced 
posnwii,  tchasnwii. 

(23)  The  ordinary  sound  of  the  dental  and  feeble  consonant  /f,  d, 
is  that  of  the  English  d :  Ex.  doMi>,  a  house,  pronounced  ^om. 

This  letter,  moreover,  takes  the  sound  of  its  corresponding  strong 
consonant  m  at  the  end  of  words  and  syllables  terminating  with 
the  hard  semi-vowel  5,  and  when  found  before  any  strong  consonant : 
Ex.  ca<fa>,  garden ;  BO^Ka,  brandy  or  whiskey ;  pronounced  sat^, 
votfka. 

In  words  wher,ein  3d  is  followed  by  /«,  the  letter  d  is  not 
pronounced :  Ex.  noadHO,  late,  (adv.)  npaadflHKT,,  holiday ;  pro- 
nounced pozna,  praznik. 

(24)  The   buzzing   or   hissing    an'd    strong   consonant   /Z7,    ?^, 
resembles  in  sound  the  compound  English  letter  sh  \  Ex.  WKa^-b, 
cupboard,  pronounced  &£kaff. 

(25)  The  ordinary  sound  of  the  buzzing  or  hissing  and  feeble 
consonant  IK,  OK,  is  that  of  the  compound  English  letter  zh,  or  the 
French  j  :  Ex.  iwc^v,  I  wait  (from  w/jaTb)  ;  MyoKn.,  husband ;  JOJ/ca, 
butt ;  pronounced  zMoo,  moo;',  %'ka. 

This  letter,  however,  takes  the  sound  of  its  corresponding  strong 

1  There  are  no  English  words  that  properly  exemplify  the  very  guttural  sound  of 
the  Russian  x,  but  the  sound  of  ch  in  the  Mcotch  word  loch  is  very  like  it. 


consonant  m  at  the  end  of  words  and  syllables  terminating  with  the 
hard  semi-vowel  V,  and  when  found  before  any  strong  consonant  : 
Ex.  HOa/et,  knife;  KpprcKa,  tankard,  jug;  pronounced  no^,  kroo^ka. 

(26)  The  ordinary  sound  of  the  hissing  and  strong  consonant 
C,  c,  is  that  of  the  English  *  :  Ex.  cecipa,  sister,  pronounced  sestra. 

Before  the  feeble  consonants  6,  i}  d,  w,  3,  this  letter  takes  the 
sound  of  its  corresponding  feeble  consonant  3  :  Ex.  £6opT»,  collection  ; 
£ropi>Ti>,  to  burn  ;  c^ait,  to  surrender  ;  OHtHMaiB,  to  compress  ;  pro- 
nounced rbor,  ^orat*,  zdatf,  2/imat*. 

Before  tu  and  u  this  letter  takes  the  hissing  sound  of  w  :  Ex. 
,  to  sew  together;  CHaciie,  prosperity  ;  pronounced 


(27)  The  ordinary  sound  of  the  hissing  and  feeble  consonant  3,  3, 
is  that  of  the  English  z  :  E«J.  SBOHT*,  ringing  (sound),  pronounced 


This  letter  also  takes  the  sound  of  its  corresponding  strong 
consonant  c  at  the  end  of  words  or  syllables  terminating  with  the 
hard  semi-vowel  5,  and  when  it  is  found  before  any  strong  con- 
sonant: Ex.  B03i,  a  load;  CKa^Ka,  tale,  fable;  pronounced  voss; 
skaska. 

NOTE.  —  The  3  of  the  particles  H3,  B03,  pas,  is  changed  into  c 
when  the  word  with  which  they  are  to  be  connected  begins  with  a 
hard  consonant  :  — 

Ex.     H3     .     .     .     HCipe6HTB,  to  destroy. 

BOS   .     .     .     BOCKpecenie,  resurrection. 
pas   .     .     .     pacneMaiaib,  to  unseal. 

(28)  The  sound  of  the  lingual  and  strong  consonant  JJ,  ^,  is  that 
of  the  compound   English  letter   ts  :    Ex.  i{apb,  Tsar   or   Russian 
Emperor's  title;  nepeifb,  pepper;  pronounced  &aV,  perefc. 

(29)  The  sound  of  the  buzzing  or  hissing  and  strong  consonant 
*/,  u,  is  that  of  the  compound  English  letters  ck  or  tch  :  Ex.  ^en^HKt, 
cap  or  cowl,  pronounced  tck&ptcMk. 

In  the  word  uio,  what  that,  (pronounced  s^to),  and  before  the 
consonant  u,  the  same  letter  takes  the  sound  of  tu  :  Ex*  napo^HO, 
designedly,  pronounced  naros^na. 

The  word  TO^HO  exactly,  is,  however,  pronounced  to^na,  to  dis- 
tinguish it  from  TOIWHO,  to  have  nausea,  pronounced  tos/ma. 

(30)  The  sound  of  the  buzzing  or  hissing  and  strong  consonant 


Uf,  %  is  that  of  the  compound  English  letters  shch  or  shtsh  :  Ex. 
t^tiib,  shield,  pronounced  shtsheet1. 

Before  the  consonant  H  the  same  letter  has  the  simple  sound  of 
lit :  Ex.  noMOHiBflK-B,  assistant,  pronounced  pamo^nik. 

(31)  The   sound  of  the   palatal  and  liquid  consonant  J[,  j,   is 
approximately  that  of  the  English  l\  Ex.  AOJT>,  dale,  valley;  6oJb, 
pain ;  pronounced  dol,  bo^. 

(32)  The  sound  of  the  labial  and  liquid  consonant  M,  M,  is  that 
of  the  English  letter  m  :  Esc.  JuaiL,  mother,  pronounced  ?^atY. 

(33)  The    sound  of  the    palatal  and   liquid   consonant  H,  H,  is 
that  of  the  English  n  :  Ex.  waiut,  our,  ours  ;  OWT>,  he  ;  pronounced 
?/ash,  on. 

(34)  The  sound  of  the  palatal  and  liquid  consonant  P,  p,  is  that 
of  the  English  r  broadly  articulated :  Ex.  j004T>,  gender,  race ;  pro- 
nounced rod. 

N.B. — The  letters  r}  &,  have  been  omitted  from  these  observations, 
because  the  first  is  practically  obsolete,  whilst  the  use  of  the  second" 
is  confined  to  a  few  words  only,  taken  from  the  Greek,  in  which  its 
sound  may  be  represented  by  the  English  letters  th.  Explanation, 
moreover,  of  the  sounds  of  the  letter  r  will  be  found  in  §  8,  page  2, 
of  the  Grammar. 

Although  an  endeavour  has  been  made  to  explain  the  pronun- 
ciation of  the  Russian  letters,  it  must  be  confessed  that  all  attempts 
to  express  the  sounds  of  one  language  by  the  characters  of  another 
are  imperfect,  oral  instruction  being  the  only  sure  means  of 
acquiring  a  correct  pronunciation. 

CHANGES  WHICH  RUSSIAN  LETTERS  UNDERGO. 

Most  of  the  apparent  irregularities  of  Russian  Etymology  being 
founded  upon  the  mutability  of  the  letters,  the  Student  is  advised 
to  pay  particular  attention  to  that  part  of  the  Grammar  which 
treats  of  their  changes  and  reciprocal  effect  upon  each  other  in  the 
formation  of  derivatives,  and  in  the  declension  and  modification  of 
words.  These  changes  will  explain  the  omission  of  some  rules 
that  are  to  be  found  in  other  Grammars,  but  which  are  rendered 
superfluous  by  a  knowledge  of  the  more  fundamental  rules  relating 
to  the  letters. 


(     xxi     ) 


PERMUTATION  OF  RUSSIAN  VOWELS,  SEMI-VOWELS, 
AND  CONSONANTS,  SUBJECT  TO  THE  VARIOUS  RULES 
OP  DERIVATION,  DECLENSION,  AND  CONJUGATION. 


VOWELS  AND  SEMI- VOWELS. 


change  into 


1.  H 

2.  T, 

3.  b  and  fi 

4.  a 

5.  K) 

6.  bi 

7.  e 

8.  o 

9.  t 
10.  b 


11.  r 

12.  A 

13.  3 

14.  K 

15.  T 

16.  ii 

17.  x 

18.  c 

19.  CK 

20.  CT. 


EPENTHESIS. 

Epenthesis,  or  the  insertion  of  a  letter  in  the  middle  of  a  word,  is 
exemplified  as  follows  :  (a)  the  vowels  o  and  e  are  inserted  between 
two  consonants  at  the  end  of  words  :  Ex.  oroiib,  fire;  Btepi>;  wind ; — 
(b)  the  consonant  Ji  is  inserted  after  the  letters  6,  e,  M,  n,  $,  when 
they  would  otherwise  be  followed  by  TO  or  e:  Ex.  JU06./7K),  I  love 
(from  jiioouTb) ;  Aemeiue,  cheaper  (from  ^emeuo),  &c. ; — (c)  the 
consonant  H  is  prefixed  to  the  pronoun  of  the  third  person  when  it 
stands  after  a  preposition  or  an  adverb  :  Ex.  y  «ero,  he  had ; 
,  against  them. 


change  into 


i   1               [      any  other  vowel, 
o   ;  before  I      any  two  consonants. 

3 

e  j 
a  N 

.  y 

any  consonant. 
;  r,  K,  x,  at,  4,  in,  in,  U. 

ii 

r,  K,  x,  JK,  4,  in,  m. 

0 

i    after  ^ 

r,  K,  x. 

e 

JK,  4,  in,  m,  U- 

n 

i. 

H    t 

any  vowel. 

CONSONANTS. 

\ 

i" 

/ 

H      \T       I. 
M>     1>    b' 

j  a,  e,  H,  y,  K),  b. 

i 

H,  K),  b. 

>< 

r 

!- 

before  ' 

H,  e,  H,  y,  K),  b. 
e,  B,  v,  b. 

.,„-, 

}••} 

H,  e,  H,  y,  w,  b. 

J 

(     xxii     ) 


PROSTHESIS. 

Prosthesis  is  the  placing-  of  a  letter  at  the  beginning  of  a  word  to 
facilitate    pronunciation  :    Ex.   06ceMB,   eight,   instead    of    OCGML; 
,  of  rye,  instead  of 


APOCOPE. 

Apocope  is  the  modifying  of  a  vowel  at  the  end  of  a  word  :  Ex. 
HT06&,  in  order  that,  instead  of  HTo6&f  ;  CO  MHOM,  with  me,  instead  of 
co  MHOTO,  &c. 

SYNCOPE. 

Syncope  is  the  striking  out  of  a  letter  from  the  middle  of  a  word 
to  facilitate  or  soften  the  pronunciation  :  Ex.  nojTOpa,  1^,  instead 
of  nojffTOpa,  &c. 


CLASSIFICATION  OF  RUSSIAN  WORDS. 

• 

All  Russian  words  are  either  primitive  (nepBOo6pa3HOtf)  —  Ex. 
cadT>,  garden  ;  o?  derivative  (npOHSBOAHoe)  —  Ex.  cfldoBHHKt,  gardener; 
or  compound  (cJiowRoe)  —  Ex.  c#doBo#CTBO,  garden^  (from  eadz, 
garden,  and  eod&mb,  to  conduct)  . 

RUSSIAN  WORDS  TRACEABLE  TO  ROOTS. 

Every  Russian  word  is,  moreover,  traceable  to  a  root  (KopeH&), 
or  reducible  to  certain  radical  syllables  or  letters  which  become 
words  by  the  junction  of  other  syllables  or  letters.  Roots  may  be 
divided  into  principal  and  secondary.  From  the  principal  (iMaBHBin) 
roots  denominative  words  or  parts  of  speech  can  be  formed  by  the 
mere  addition  of  a  semi-  vowel  or  a  vowel  :  Ex.  from  the  root  end 
comes  BH£&,  sight  ;  from  the  root  pyK  comes  pyKa,  a  hand.  The 
secondary  (npiuaTOHH&iH)  roots  are  subdivided  into,  (a)  initial 
(npeAtHAymm),  which  consist  of  auxiliary  words  or  particles  in  unioji 
with  other  principal  roots  at  the  beginning  of  which  they  are 
placed.  These  are  called  prefixes  or  prepositions  :  Ex.  y  -xo#&, 
departure;  0m-Ka3&,  refusal,  &c.  ;  —  (b]  final  (nocxfeAyiomm),  or  such 
as  form  the  termination  of  other  principal  roots.  These  are  called 
suffixes  :  Ex.  BOfl-a,  water,  A^Ji-ami),  to  do,  &c. 


The  roots   of  the  following  words  can  at  once  be  traced  after 


(     xxiii     ) 

removing  their  prefixes  and  affixes,  and  then  reducing  compound 
words  to  derivative,  and  derivative  to  primitive,  as  seen  above  : — 

np€H3tf&i»aoHecTBOBaTb,  to  superabound  (root  6bim). 
3ac0Mdi>Te.ibCTBOBaHie,  attestation  (root  end). 
HeaatfMCHMOCTb,  independence  (root  euc). 
HeH3JW/&/?MMbiH,  immeasurable  (root  Mibp). 
npeAC/&daTe,ibCTBOBaTb,  to  preside  (root  end), 
cocmpadame,  compassion  (root  cmpad). 

,  inventive  faculty  (root  6pjbm). 
,  auxiliary  (root  MM). 

H;  satisfactory  (root  meop),  &c. 


ROOTS  OF  REGULAR  RUSSIAN  VERBS. 

The  root  of  regular  Russian  verbs  can  be  ascertained  by  striking 
off  the  final  letters  nib  of  the  infinite  mood  of  the  imperfect  aspect, 
together  with  any  of  the  preceding  vowels  #,  u,  n,  o,  y,  e,  n. 


ERRATA. 


Line 

For 

Bead 

Page 

Line 

For 

Read 

25 

•lerKiS 

JerKiS 

54 

3 

nepenATH 

nepeiiiH 

33 

nap^iie 

oaptiie 

55 

33 

noAyJt 

noAyJi 

23 

ciapocry 

ciapocrb 

61 

15 

no0Ay 

noiiAy 

5 

sepKaxb 

aepKaJT. 

62 

18 

pacKpaTHBaib 

pacKpauiHBaxb 

3£ 

PJ'KH 

PJKH 

63 

12 

vBOAa.ii 

yBH/itj^ 

36 

pyKbi 

pyKbi 

j> 

39 

CTyKHy-HHIb-HTb 

ciyKHy  -euib  -etT, 

14 

in  the  oblique 

in      this     one 

-HMT,  -Hie  -yn> 

^-6Mi>  -eie  -yn> 

cases 

oblique  case 

64 

1 

A'fe.iaii,  %UBH 

A^ati,  H;HBH 

9 

MypaseBT> 

MypaebCBX 

» 

45 

BHAUBclBIIjifi 

BH.lblBaBIlliu 

18 

nyjKOB'b 

lyJKOB-b 

65 

5 

ci-iasi 

CA*JaBT, 

18 

on 

in 

67 

42 

praising  himself 

praising  one's  self 

20 

MeAB'EHeHOK'b 

MeABtateHOKi 

68 

3 

yjbiOHyjuiHCb 

y.ibi(5aBiiiHCb 

22 

.ibBc'iiHii      and 

JbBe'HKH      and 

69 

44 

o 

or 

MuirieiiKa 

HbinieHKH 

71 

5 

lisniaib 

'B3;i;aTb 

» 

.ibB.'tTa 

JbBaia 

72 

18 

prefixes 

aspects 

2 

IiepKBH 

IU'PKBII 

74 

31 

work 

wink 

8 

JJ 

»» 

76 

16 

CMOTpauiifica 

CMOTpamificH 

27 

Bopo6b6a 

Bopodeft 

» 

22 

bifl,  aa,  €6 

biu,  aa,  oe 

4 

K0ie.il 

Koxeji 

» 

37 

by    means    of 

5 

note 

knot 

either 

from  either 

17 

Baxopx,  Biixpa 

Hnxop't,  Biixpa 

78 

9 

force 

voice 

21 

neufl 

neua 

>5 

24 

HIOCKOJbKO 

eicKOJbKO 

3 

ceroAHaniHbift 

ceroABsinHifi 

1   M 

27 

Becbta 

BCCbMa 

14 

yctie'iiBbift 

yc'BieHHHfl 

79 

1 

npOBOJKAilTb 

npOBOAiiib 

18 

Be-iMKT.  -a  -o 

BCJHKI  -a  -6 

80 

6 

ee  no,  Bint  not 

He  not,  H-BTI  no 

16 

•li'pilMil 

qe'pebiB 

?> 

15 

TaKIIM'b 

Taui'iMb 

22 

Hafi.  HaH-iyqinia 

ean,  naii.iy'iiuiii 

82 

18 

BlSA* 

B-BAb 

23 

iiafifioj-Be 

naHOdj-Be 

84 

28 

adjective  npo- 

past    tense    of 

6 

oixe 

HH/K6 

iii.n.iii 

iipoihii 

7 

Haiuyqiiiift 

HaH-iyioiia 

88 

10 

not  so 

not  to 

8 

HafixyAiiiitt 

iiauxyAuiiii 

» 

35 

H^PBWMT, 

nepBbiMi 

19 

ceciepi) 

ceciepi 

90 

18 

• 

a 

23 

jj 

j> 

>» 

28 

BOSOBnOBlI.IUCb 

B03o6nOBM.lHCb 

7 

(UCHbarO 

o^^Hbefl 

91 

6 

Kalmucks,  a 

Kalmucks  arc  a 

8 

OJe'HbeMy 

» 

» 

23 

•ioftiiffl 

iMiimuin 

28 

ABa,   sing.,  for 

ABa,  siw,^.,  /or 

92 

14 

Poccifi 

Poccia 

all  genders 

>wasc.  &  neut. 

'? 

20 

M(i.Ibf)I,I 

MO.II-nbl 

29 

AB1>,  plnr. 

AB-B,  ^em. 

93 

2 

cpaHu'niii 

Cpa/KGHlH 

2 

HOIOB^BA 

no.iOBBiia 

» 

4 

MHoatecBio 

MHOSteCTBO 

6 

COOOK) 

coGoio 

94 

8 

ibe 

ibe 

12 

-we  -LIU 

-ie  -ia 

» 

24 

•••^pajiHuxft 

MHnepa^bewxT) 

11 

»j      jj 

»    » 

95 

14 

co^HHeaia 

co4UHeuitt 

14 

»      j» 

»    » 

» 

34 

TpedoBaib 

ipeOoBarb 

8 

6"HXblT> 

6nbIXT> 

97 

2 

BoiicKa 

BOflCKa 

3 

1TO  ? 

(qio)  ? 

»j 

13 

HtepTBOBHTb 

•/KepiBOBaTb 

25 

medeieYb,  p/Kerb 

meCeieTt,  psteii 

5> 

18 

aaB^AWBaHie 

saB'BAHBaHie 

27 

Boexi 

BdeiT) 

98 

25 

MUJOCTbl 

MM.IOCTH 

28 

Mbliaib 

MbliaTl 

99 

29 

MOpeMb 

Mdpe.Mi 

29 

6.»eeii 

(U4en 

105 

34 

AJDbl 

AJbnw 

30 

MaynaeTi 

MflyKaeiT. 

jj 

37 

AjniHCKHXT. 

AJbniiiCKHXT. 

*5 

Clillllbil 

CBHUbH 

107 

28 

Cd.iKue 

C6.inue 

31, 

xpiOKaeiT) 

xpwKaeiT, 

109 

23 

KOpojeBCKoe 

Kopo.ieBCKoe 

jj 

BOpKyeii 

BopnyeTT) 

110 

18 

HHCTHTyTT) 

HHCTHTyii 

32 

KJOK^eTT. 

KJOXIGTI 

jj 

26 

PdJKAeCTBO 

POJKA6CTBO 

33 

KBaKaeii 

KBaKaerb 

« 

28 

nOABHSKH 

IIO,U!f'l.'!KII 

34 

HjyHJHtai^ 

jKVJKataTT. 

111 

8 

npoHiueCTBie 

n^oHcmecTBie 

35 

atyjKHJar'b 

aty/K/Karb 

112 

9 

BtAiaie 

Bt>ACFiie 

30 

CKpiinKt 

CKpUflKfi 

J5 

67 

*e.i'B3a 

jKe.rtaa 

INTRODUCTION. 


§  1.  Russian  Grammar  elucidates  those  rules  of  the  Russian 
language  which  should  be  adhered  to,  both  in  Conversation  and 
in  Writing. 

§  2.  In  order  to  correctly  express  our  thoughts,  we  must  know, 
(1)  the  proper  use  and  meaning  of  words  in  all  their  inflections  or 
changes ;  (2)  how  to  connect  such  words  so  that  the  sense  of  our 
expressions  may  be  perfectly  clear;  (3)  how  to  write  words  in  con- 
formity with  rules  laid  down  by  the  best  authors. 

§  3.  Agreeably  to  the  above  requirements,  Grammar  divides  itself 
into  three  parts  : — 

I.        Etymology      (CiOBonponsBefleHitf). 
II.       Syntax  (CjLOBOco4HHeme). 

III.      Orthography 


FIEST    PAET. 


ETYMOLOGY. 

§  4.  Under  the  head  of  Etymology  are  explained,  (1)  the  deriva- 
tion (iipOHCXOJKAeHi'e),  (2)  the  construction  (cociaBtf),  (3)  the  significa- 
tion (3Ha4em£),  and  (4)  the  changes  (nepeMlma *)  of  words. 

^  5.  A  word  may  express  any  sort  of  idea  or  feeling  :  Ex.  Apyrs 
friend,  Mope  sea,  CKpoMHOCT&  modesty,  ^ofip&w  good,  kind,  nfli&  five, 


1  All  Russian  words  placed  within  brackets  after  English  words  are  in  their 
primary  terminations.  They  are  so  placed  in  order  to  let  the  student  see,  without 
search,  what  are  the  corresponding  Russian  equivalents  for  such  terms  as  are  in 
common  use  in  every  grammar.  Trans. 

B 


(    2     ) 

H  I,  VBaJKaib  to  consider,  HHiatomeft l  he  who  reads,  6ira/z 2  running-, 
aaeipa  to-morrow,  MeiK/jy  amongst,  between,  cjiflOBaTCJ&HO  con- 
sequently, axT> !  ah !  oh  !  OH  oh  !  ah  ! 

§  6.  Words  are  made  up  of  syllables  (cjors),  and   syllables   of 
letters  (6yKBfl). 

§  7.  A  letter  is  that  which  is  produced  by  separate  sounds  of  the 
voice. 

§  8.  There  are  thirty-six  letters  in  the  Russian  Alphabet.3 

05s. — The  Slavonic  letter  ir  is  pronounced  in  a  twofold  man- 
ner, (1 )  as  u  in  the  word  Mvpo  chrism  or  holy  oil,  and  CVHOA& 
synod ;  and  (2)  as  e  in  the  words  Evanr&iitf  Gospel,  and 
HcavL  Esau.  The  letter  ir  is  only  used  in  modern  Russian 
in  the  word  Mvpo,  and  its  derivatives,  such  as  Mvpo- 
noMaaame  rite  of  anointing,  MVponocHua  bearer  of  the 
holy  oil,  etc. 

§  9.  Russian  letters  are  divided  into  vowels  (iMacna/z  6yKB0),  semi- 
vowels (no.iyr.iacHfl#  6^KB«),  and  consonants  (conacim/J  6yKB0). 

§10.  The  vowels  are  pronounced  without  the  aid  of  other  letters. 
They  are  as  follows  : — a,  e,  n,  i,  o,  y,  H,  "fc,  a,  H),  fl. 

N.B. — The  vowel  e  accented  is  pronounced  in  several  words 
like  io  (HO)  :  Ex.  e\iKa  fir-tree,  je'At  ice,  MCAT.  honey,  mead, 
noerb  *  he,  she,  or  it  sings.  In  such  cases  two  dots  are 
sometimes  placed  over  the  letter  e,  thus  e. 

§11.  The  semi-vowel  H   (or  u  short)  is  written  and  pronounced 

after  vowels  :  Ex.  AHApett  Andrew,  lerKm  light,  noKowHbitt  tranquil. 

The  semi-vowels  t  and  b'are  employed  after  consonants.    TJ 

gives  them  a  hard  sound  :  Ex.  CTO.I5  table,  015^345  departure. 

But  L  gives   a  soft  sound  to  the  consonant  which  precedes 

it :  Ex.  CTO.I&  so  much,  so  many,  atoHbiii  business-like. 

The  letter  v  (a/Kima,  name  of  this  Slavonic  letter),  as  has 

been  said  in  the  observation  at  foot  of  §  8,  is  pronounced 

in  a  twofold  way,  viz.  either  like  the  vowel  u,  or  like  the 


1  First  person,  singular  number,  present  participle,  active,  of  the  verb   leiaifr,  to 
read.     Tram. 

2  Present  gerund  of  the  verb  6l>raT6,  to  run.     Trans. 

3  See  Table  facing  p.  xi.     Trans. 

4  Third  person,  singular  number,  present  tense,  of  the  verb  nte,  to  sing.    Trans. 


(     3     ) 

consonant  <?.  In  the  first  case,  therefore,  it  may  be  reckoned 
as  a  vowel,  and  in  the  second  as  a  consonant. 

§  ]  2.  The  consonants  are  uttered  with  the  aid  of  vowels.  The 
consonants  are  6,  B,  r,  A,  >K,  3,  K,  i,  M,  n,  n,  p,  c,  T,  <&,  x,  q,  M,  m,  m,  e. 

§  13.  One  vowel,  or  the  coupling  of  one  or  more  vowels  with 
semi-  vowels  or  consonants,  forms  a  syllable  :  Ex.  a,  o,  y,  a,  W35,  OT&, 
ail,  eii,  npit-cip0-MT&,  ow-4/ft.i&-HbiH,  y-Kpa-we-m-e. 

§14.  Words  are  made  up  of  one  or  more  syllables,  and  are 
classified  as  mono-syllabic  (oj(UOCJi6iKBoe),dis-s//lladic  (^BycMOJKHoe),  tri- 
syllabic (ipexaiojKHoe),  and  poly-syllabic  (MHoroaio/KHoe)  :  Ex.  noJK5 
regiment,  3a-KOH5  law,  H6-JO-B/&K5  man,  eo-fiep-iiieH-CTBO  perfection. 

§  15.  Words    may  be  either  primary  (KOpeHHoi)   or  derivative 


§  16.  Primary  words  are  such  as  are  not  derived  from  other  words  : 
Ex.  Becai&£  joy,  jKajti&  to  pity. 

§  17.  Derivative  words  are  formed  from  the  primary:  Ex.  BecaiLHaKff 
merry  fellow,  Bece'jbiii  merry,  Bece^HTftca  to  make  oneself  merry,  &c., 
derived  from  Becejbe  ;  3KaiocT&  pity,  cow&ikme  commiseration,  HiajKm 
miserable,  des^AOCtEbiu  pitiless,  cjKajHTftca  to  take  pity  on,  jKcU&  it  is 
a  pity,  &c.,  derived  from  ffia.ii>T&. 

§  18.  Compound  (cjiowftoe)  words  are  formed  by  the  junction  of 
two  or  more  single  words  :  Ex.  MOpeiuaBaTe.i&  navigator, 
good  action,  ffesjipuci^aciie  impartiality,  &c.     Integral 
words  can  be  formed  in  like   manner,   such   as    FeHep 
Major-General,  KTO-HH6JA&  someone,  &c. 

§  19.  All  words  in  the  Russian  language  are  divided,  according 
to  their  meaning,  into  umeparts  of  speech  (qaci&  pij<m.)  These  are  :  — 

I.  Noun     Substantive    (Ham 

II.  „        Adjective        (HMa 

III.  „        Numeral         (Haia 

IV.  Pronoun 

V.  Verb 

VI.  Adverb  (Hap^iie). 

VII.  Preposition  (IIpe4ji6r&). 
VIII.  Conjunction  (CoK)35). 

IX.  Interjection 

B  2 


(     4     ) 

§  20.  Words  belonging  to  the  first  six  parts  of  speech  have 
variable  terminations,  whereas  those  belonging  to  the  three  last 
named  do  not  alter  in  any  way. 

THE  NOUN  SUBSTANTIVE  (HMH  CymecTBHiei&Hoe) • 

§  21 .  A  Noun  Substantive  is  the  name  of  any  object :  Ex.  Eor&  God, 
40M5  house,  36M.ia  earth,  TepnijH&£  patience,  qacT>  hour,  o'clock,  &c. 

§  22.  Objects  (npe^Meis)  are  (1)  animate  (ojymeBje'flHbiH),  i.e. 
those  which  have  life  and  voluntary  motion :  Ex.  HeJOBi>KT»  man,  He'iptf 
Peter,  &c.,  &c. 

Obs. — The  names  (HMH)  by  which  we  call  people  are  personal 
(JHHHWH)  objects  :  Ex.  6pai5  brother,  cecipo.  sister,  AieK- 
caH£p5,  Alexander,  Map&/&  Mary,  no.iK6BHHK8  colonel,  co.i- 
4ai5  soldier,  Macieps  master,  &c. 

(2)  Inanimate    (Heo#yffleB.ieHHBiH),  i.e.    those  which  have  not 

life  and  voluntary  motion.      Ex.  4yo5  oak,  flOM5  house, 
KOMHaia  room,  nepo  feather. 

Obs. — To  the  class  of  inanimate  objects  belong  the  sensitive 
(qyBCTBeHHbm) :  Ex.  6.I6CK&  splendour,  r6pen&  bitterness, 
3anax5  smell. 

(3)  Intellectual  (yMCTBeHHbm)  or  abstract  (oTBjeneHHbm),  which 
are  presented  to  the  understanding  by  such  words  as  cnpoM- 
HOCTB  modesty,  npHjeffiaH^  application,  BOoSpaaieHi^  imagi- 
nation, BpeMfl  time,  ro4T>  year,  &c. 

Obs. — Bors  God,  BoroiieJOBiKjj  godly  man,  anrej^  angel,  ayxtf 
spirit,  4yina  soul,  and  other  similar  nouns  which  denote 
immaterial  beings,  are  called  spiritual  (yjyxoBHbw)  objects. 

§  23.  Nouns  Substantive  are  divided  into  (1)  appellative  (napH- 
uaiejibHoe),  or  common  (66mee),  under  which  denomination  come  all 
objects  which  are  common  to  a  class.  Ex.  H&!OBi>K&  man,  Kopojfe 
king,  ropOA»  town,  pa^ocib  joy,  &c. 

(2)  Proper  (c66cTBeHH00),  by  which  we  distinguish  one  object 
from  all  others  that  may  be  like  it.  Ex.  AjeKcaH^pS 
Alexander,  MapL^  Mary,  Pocci#  Russia,  Bojra  Volga,  &c. 

Obs. — To  the  proper  nouns  belong  not  only  all  Christian 
names  of  people,  but  also  their  patronymics,  and  family 


(    5    ) 

or  surnames.  Ex.  HeaHOtftm  son  of  John,  Ueipoeua 
daughter  of  Peter,  TypreH£tf5  Toorgeneff,  HyiiiKiiiiB  Poosh- 
kin,  &c. 

(3)  Collective  (Co6HpaTeJBH0<?),  which  by  the   use   of  one   word 

imply  few  or  many  objects  representing  the  same  sort 
or  kind.  Ex.  ceMeHCTBO  family,  Hap6fl&  people,  BOHCKO 
army,  .ito  forest,  &c. 

Obs. — In  order  to  note  a  quantity  of  animals,  birds,  or 
insects,  the  following  collective  nouns  are  used  :  cia^o 
herd  or  flock  of  cattle  or  sheep,  xaSyHff  drove  or  stud  of 
horses,  eras  flight  or  covey  of  birds,  or  pack  of  dogs, 
pott  swarm  of  bees,  &c. 

(4)  Material  (BemeciBeHHoe),  which    indicate    the    substance 

of  the  object,  be  the  quantity  large  or  small.  Ex.  36.1010 
gold,  Mi>fl&  copper,  jepefio  wood,  MyKo.  flour,  Macjo  oil, 
butter,  &c. 

§  24.  It  is  a  peculiarity  of  the  Russian  language  that  nouns 
substantive  may  be  (1)  augmentative  (yBejnHHTCJbHO^),  or  those  which 
show  the  unusually  large  size  of  an  object.  Ex.  coJAaTHiiji  big 
soldier,  pymma  large  hand,  ciojam^  huge  table,  &c. 

(2)  Diminutive  (vMeHLUiHTejLHOtf),  or  those  which  designate 
the  smallness  of  the  object.  Ex.  coJAaiHK5  small  soldier, 
pyiKfl  small  hand,  CTOJHKT>  little  table,  &c. 
To  the  class  of  diminutive  nouns  belong  (a)  the  compli- 
mentary (npHBtTCTBCHHOtf)  or  caressing  (.lacKaieJiBHOtf),  which 
are  used  in  the  Russian  language  when  addressing  or 
naming  favourite  objects,  or  in  order  to  give  expression 
to  a  sense  of  love  for  such.  Ex.  6paieq5  dear  brother, 
cecTpwaa  dear  sister,  Bae^,  Banwma,  BanHHKa  dear  John, 
Kai/?,  Kaiibiiirt,  KaieeLKa  dear  Kate,  joma^yuiKa  dear  horse, 
KOpoBVinKfl  dear  cow,  pyieHBKfl  dear  little  hand,  &c.  (b) 
Derogatory  (yHflqnJKiiTeJtHOtf),  or  those  which  give  expres- 
sion to  a  want  of  regard  for  an  object,  or  a  sense  of  its 
insignificance,  or  a  contempt  for  it.  Ex.  KHHTKOHK^  miser- 
able book,  40MHIDK0  wretched  house,  JOina^eHK^  sorry 
horse,  &c. 

§  25.  In  the  case  of  nouns  substantive  the  gender  pO£5,  numbei 
MIHXIO,  and  case  nafleattf,  should  be  observed 


(     6     ) 

§  26.  Nouns  substantive  in  the  Russian  language  have  three 
genders  (po^s),  viz.  masculine  (MyjKecKw),  feminine  (iKeHCKm),  and 
neuter  (cpeAHm). 

The  gender  of  nouns  substantive  is  ascertained  either  by 
their  meaning  or  by  their  termination.  As  touching  the 
former,  all  objects  of  the  male  sex  (no  matter  what  may 
be  their  termination)  are  of  the  masculine  gender.  Ex. 
Oiyra  servant,  nknH  uncle,  noAMaciepbtf  foreman,  MteLio 
money-changer,  &c.  ;  and  objects  of  the  female  sex  (no 
matter  what  may  be  their  termination)  belong  to  the 
feminine  gender.  Ex.  ciyacaHKa  servant-maid,  RH.RJI  nurse, 
flOH&  daughter,  &c. 

The  same  rule  applies  to  animate  objects  which  distinguish 
male  (caneus)  and  female  (caMKa)  in  animals.  Ex.  .ieB5 
lion,  jBBHua  lioness,  Gapaas  ram,  OEnd  ewe  or  sheep,  ntiyxtf 
cock,  Kypnufl  hen,  &c. 

Nouns  ending  in  H  and  T>  belong  to  the  masculine  gender. 
Ex.  Mypasew  ant,  ope\i5  eagle,  DOKOW  rest,  CTOI&  table,  &c. 

Nouns  ending  in  a  and  a  belong  to  the  feminine  gender. 
Ex.  ninara  sword,  jiiiU  lily,  3a66ra  care,  fly  ma  soul,  &c. 

Nouns  ending  in  o,  e,  and  MH  belong  to  the  neuter  gender. 
Ex.  OKHO  window,  Mope  sea,  BpeM/z  time,  &c. 

To  the  neuter  gender  belongs  also  n\\iii  child. 

Of  nouns  substantive,  which  terminate  in  t,  some  belong  to 
the  masculine  gender.  Ex.  ^en&  day,  KOpaGjft  ship;  whilst 
others  belong  to  the  feminine  gender,  as  T^H&  shadow, 
plane,  surface,  &c. 


§  27.  Besides  the  above,  there  are,  in  the  Russian  language, 
other  nouns  substantive  ending  in  a  and  A,  which  are  of  the  common 
(66miw)  gender.  In  other  words,  such  nouns  as  have  the  same 
termination  for  both  masculine  and  feminine  genders.  Ex.  on  pom 
orphan,  6po#ara  vagabond,  iuaKCfl  whiner,  po#H/z  kindred,  &c. 

§  28.  Augmentative  and  diminutive  nouns,  no  matter  what  may 
be  their  terminations,  belong  to  the  gender  of  those  nouns  from 
which  they  are  derived. 

§  29.  Foreign  nouns  employed  in  the  Russian  language  which 
end  in  u  and  y,  when  they  denote  animate  objects,  are  of  the 
masculine  gender,  and  when  they  refer  to  inanimate  or  abstract 


(     7     ) 

objects  are  of  the  neuter  gender.  Ex.  KOJa6pw  humming-bird, 
KaiiaAJr  cockatoo,  which  are  of  the  masculine  gender:  napH=3aiuafl5 
bet,  wager,  which  is  of  the  neuter  gender. 

§  30.  Personal  nouns  have  two  genders,  viz.  masculine  and 
feminine.  Ex.  HMneparops  Emperor,  HMnepaipHiw  Empress,  Fefle- 
pa.15  General,  Feflepajbiiia  General's  wife,  MOHaxtf  monk,  MonaxiuiA 
nun,  cod^S  male  neighbour,  cock^a  female  neighbour,  &c.  4HPeR- 
ipHCfl  directress,  HHcneKipHO?  inspectress,  SKOHOMK^  housekeeper, 
refer  solely  to  the  persons  of  the  female  sex  who  perform  the  duties 
indicated  by  their  respective  designations  ;  whereas,  on  the  other 
hand,  AHpeKTOpin0,  MHcneKTOpnm,  SKOHOMina  are  the  Russian  de- 
signations for  the  wives  of  a  director,  inspector,  and  house  steward 
respectively. 

With  regard  to  the  names  of  peoples;  the  feminine  is  derived 
from  the  masculine  thus  :  —  from  POCCWHHH&  Russian  (man), 
comes  Pocci/iHKa  Russian  (woman)  ;  from  AfliMHiaiiHHS 
Englishman,  AHiMHHaHM  Englishwoman  ;  from  Hi>Meu& 
German  (man),  we  get  H^MIM  German  (woman),  &c. 
Personal  nouns  which  denote  kindred  or  affinity  have  for 
each  sex  separate  denominations  :  — 

Oieiiff  father,  Mais  mother. 

CbiH5  son,  4oH&  daughter. 

Bpais  brother,  Cecipa  sister. 

uncle,  Te'TKa  aunt. 


§  31  .  In  the  Russian  language  the  denominations  of  the  several 
degrees  of  relationship  are  extremely  numerous.  It  may  be  well  to 
observe  the  following  :.  — 

Teci&  father-in-law,  wife's  father. 
Te'm#  mother-in-law,  wife's  mother. 

brother-in-law,  wife's  brother. 
or  CfiOHHeHHijfl  sister-in-law,  wife's  sister. 
CBOJIK&  brother-in-law,  wife's  sister's  husband. 
CfieKOp?J  father-in-law,  husband's  father. 
CBeKpoB&  mother-in-law,  husband's  mother. 
4efiep&  or  4^Bep&  brother-in-law,  husband's  brother. 
SoioBKft  sister-in-law,  husband's  sister. 
3ai&  son-in-law  or  brother-in-law,  daughter's   husband    or 
sister's  husband. 


(     8     ) 

HesiciKa    daughter-in-law  or  sister-in-law,    son's    wife    or 
brother's  wife. 
or  BOTHHM&  stepfather. 
stepmother. 
stepson. 
stepdaughter. 


§  32.  There  are  two  numbers  (HHCJO).  The  singular  (e^6ecTBeH- 
Eoe),  which  speaks  of  one  object  :  Ex.  (5pai&  brother,  p^Ka  river. 
The  plural  (MHOJKeciBeHHoe),  which  refers  to  two  or  more  objects 
of  the  same  sort  :  Ex.  6paTta  brothers,  pijKtt  rivers,  &c. 

§  33.  Certain  nouns  substantive  are  used  in  the  singular  number 
only,  whilst  others,  although  referring  to  one  object,  have  only  a 
plural  form. 

Of  the  former  class  there  are  (l)the  greater  part  of  the  proper 
(coftcTBeflHOtf)  nouns:  ^?.PnM5  Rome,  Beaysiw  Vesuvius,  &c. 
(2)  the  greater  number  of  the  material  (BemecTBGHHoe) 
nouns  :  Ex.  364010  gold,  MOJOKO  milk,  &c.  (3)  the  names 
of  the  virtues  and  the  vices  :  Ex,  Tepnims'tf  patience, 
indolence,  &c.  (4)  many  of  the  abstract 
nouns  :  Ex.  CHacT?>  fortune,  ciapocift  old  age,  &c.  (5)  many 
of  the  names  of  plants,  especially  of  the  kitchen  -garden  : 
Ex.  maBC4&  sorrel,  JiyK5  onion,  &c. 

Of  the  latter  class  some  have  meanings  different  to  that 
of  the  singular  form  :  Ex.  JL&AU  people,  HOJKHHIIW  pair  of 
scissors,  Bopora  gate,  &c.  Others  are  the  names  of  old 
towns  and  places  :  Ex.  A.0HH&1  Athens,  0epMonft.i«  Ther- 
mopylae, &c. 

§  34.  Certain  nouns  have  in  the  singular  number  one  sig- 
nification, and  in  the  plural  another.  Ex.  Bic5  weight,  Bicbt 
scales,  Aeebra  J  copeck,  fleHBrw  money,  Hacff  hour,  iac&!  watch, 
clock,  &c. 


§  35.  Cases  (naflejKB)  are  the  terminations  of  nouns  which   show 
the  various  relations  in  which  objects  stand  to  each  other. 

%  36.  In  the  Russian  language   there  are  seven   cases.     They 
answer  to  certain  questions  :  — 


(     9    ) 


(1)  Nominative  (nMeHUTeJbHbm),  which   answers   to  the  ques- 

\       /  V  /  '  -I 

tions — KTO?  who  ?  HTO?  what?1  Ex.  KTO  npHme.i'b?  (past 
tense  of  verb  npnATH),  who  came  ?  Ans.  EpaT&  brother. 
*JTO  y  Te6a  BT>  pyKaxi.  ?  What  is  there  (or  hast  thou)  in 
(thy)  hands  ?  Ans.  nuana  a  hat. 

(2)  Vocative  (sBarejibHbm),  which  has  its  termination  like  the 
nominative,  points  to  the  designation  of  the  object  to 
which  we  refer.     Ex.  BpaTtf  !  noAH 2  CK)Aa.  Brother  !  come 
here.      3AOpoB&-.iH  Tbi,  jK)6e3HbiH  Apyn>?    Art  thou  well, 
dear  friend  ? 

(3)  Genitive  (pOAHTC-ibHbm),  which  answers  to  the  questions — 

Koro  ?  *ler6  ?  ^ea  ?  *lba  ?  *Ibe  ?  Of  whom  ?  Of  which  or  of 
what  ?  Whose  (masc.  fern,  neuter)  ?  J5£e.  Koro  SA^Cb  Hi>T5  ?  3 
is  not  here  ?  ^*.  BpaTa,  brother. — ^ero  BA^Cb  H^TS  ? 
is  not  here?  Ans.  Hl^anbi,  the  hat.— ^ea  STOTZJ  AOM»  ? 
house  (is)  this  ?  ^tw«.  Moero  npiaTej^,  My  friend's. 

(4)  Dative  (AaTejbHbm),  which  answers  to  the  questions — KOMV? 

^eMy  ?    To  whom  ?  To  which  ?    or  to  what  ?    JJk.  Koiviy 

Tbi  OTA3J5  4  KHHry?  To  ^ow  didst  thou  give  back  the 

book  ?    Ans.  BpaTy,  To   the    brother. — ^eiwy    Tbi    VAHB- 

lambca  ? 6       What  dost     thou    admire  ?     ^w*.    nuan/b 
the  hat. 

(5)  Accusative  (BHHHTCJbHbm),  which  answers  to  the  questions — 

Koro  ?  ^TO  ?  whom  ?  which  ?  what  ?  Ex.  Koio  Tbi 
?  6  Whom  dost  thou  see  ?  Ans.  6paT#  brother. 
Tbi  AepJKninb  ? 7  #^^  dost  thou  hold  ?  ^ft$.  iiLian?/ 
the  hat. 

(6)  Instrumental  (TBOpHTCJbHbm),  which  answers  to  the  ques- 


1  The  questions,  KTO  ?  Kord  ?  KOM^  ?  KtMt  ?  0  KOMX  ?  serve  for  the  animate  nouns  ; 
whilst  HTO  ?    Herd  ?   Hesiy  ?  HtMi  ?  0  He'Mi  ?  are  used  in  the  cases  of  the  inanimate 
and  abstract  nouns. 

2  Second  person,  singular  number,  imperative  mood,  of  the  verb  DO&TH.    Trans. 
8  With  the  impersonal  verb  HtT5  the  genitive  case  is  required.     Tram. 

4  Past  tense  of  the  verb  OTfldTb.    Trans. 

*  Present  tense  of  the  verb  y^BRiaTtca,  which  governs  the  dative.     Trans. 
6  Present  tense  of  the  verb  BH4tTb.    Trans. 

*  Present  tense  of  the  verb  jepJKaTB.    Trans. 


(     10 


tions  —  Klurs  ?  ^1^5  ?  by  whom  ?  by  wliat  ?  or  by 
which  ?  Ex.  Kt.M5  ibi  AOBOJCWS  ?  :  With  whom  art  thou 
satisfied  ?  As.  Eparo.M&,  with  the  brother.  —  *Hi.M»  TH 
^OBoje«5  ?  with  w/^,  or  with  which,  art  thou  satisfied  ? 
Ans.  ffljfino70,  with  the  hat. 

(7)  Prepositional  (npe&iovKB&w),  which  answers  to  the  ques- 
tions —  o  KOMI,  ?  o  Mean,  ?  npn  KOMT>  ?  npa  HCMT,  ?  Ha 
KOMT,  ?  Ha  MeMt  ?  BT>  KOMT,  ?  BI>  MCMT,  ?  about  whom  ?  about 
which,  or  what  ?  near  or  at  whom  ?  near  or  at  which  or 
what  ?  on  whom  ?  on  which  or  what  ?  in  whom  ?  in 
which  or  what  ?  J5b.  0  KOMT>  a  roBopib  ?  2  tffoi^  w/i<m  do 
I  speak  ?  A*.  0  Spark,  about  brother.  —  0  MeMT>  a  roeopib  ? 
about  which  or  what  do  I  speak  ?  A,s.  0  nijani,  about 
the  hat. 

Obs.  —  The  nominative  and  vocative  cases,  the  terminations  of 
which  are  not  subject  to  change  (further  than  is  caused  by 
number),  are  called  the  direct  (npaMofi)  cases  ;  whereas  all 
the  other  cases,  the  terminations  of  which  do  alter  (differing- 
the  one  from  the  other),  are  called  the  oblique  (nocBeHiibw) 
cases.  The  prepositional  case  is  always  used  with  prepo- 
sitions (npej.i6rs).  The  following  are  the  most  frequently 
used  prepositions:  —  o,  or  061,  or  060  (about),  Ha  (on  or 
upon),  npn  (near,  at,  in  the  presence  of),  BT>  or  BO  (in  or  at). 

§  37.  The  declension  (cooHenitf)  of  nouns  marks  the  changes  of 
termination  which  they  undergo  according  to  number  and  case.  In 
the  Russian  language  there  are  three  declensions. 

To  the  first  belong  those  nouns  substantive  which  terminate 

in  &,  u  and  &,  being  of  the  masculine  gender. 
To  the  second  those  which  terminate  in  a  and  H,  of  both  the 
masculine  and  feminine  genders,  and  those  in  6  of  the 
feminine  gender  only. 

To  the  third  those  which  terminate  in  o,  e  and  MX,  being  of 
the  neuter  gender. 

§  38.  Nouns  substantive  are  declined  according  to  the  following 
tables  :  — 


1  Abbreviated  form  of  the  adjective  ^OBo^tHbiti.     Trans. 

2  Present  tense  of  the  verb  roBOpHTb.     Trans. 


Singular  Number. 


Habeas. 

Cases. 

IST  DECLENSION. 

MASC.  TERMINATION. 

2ND  DECLENSION. 

FEM.  TERMINATION. 

3RD  DECLENSION. 

NEUT.  TERMINATION. 

liMCMI.   H    3Bai. 

Nom.  &  Voc. 

i 

I 

b 

a 

A 

b 

0 

e 

Mil 

PO£HT. 

Gen. 

a 

* 

H 

H 

» 

« 

a 

a 

(Mill 

Dat! 

y 

K) 

K) 

•B 

•6 

B 

y 

K) 

(Mill 

BHH. 
Ace. 

(-b 

^ 

I 

"} 

y 

K) 

b 

0 

e 

Mil 

Tfiop. 
Instr. 

on 

en 

CM'L 

OH) 

CK) 

bK) 

on 

CM'L 

eneM-b 

Dpe/j. 
Prep. 

, 

, 

•B 

•B 

•B 

• 

•B 

* 

eini 

Plural  Number. 


rbien.  H  Ssax. 
Nom.  &  Voc. 

bl 

H 

B 

bl 

H 

• 

a 

H 

e.a 

Gen. 

m 

e», 

el 

I 

b 

el 

1 

el 

enx 

Dat. 

-'Mil. 

HM'b 

AMI 

aM-b 

AMI 

AMI 

aM'L 

JIM'I, 

enanii 

BHH. 
Ace. 

("OBI 

6BI 

efl} 

B  j 

(X 
lu 

b 
B 

B) 

a 

A 

cna 

TBOp. 
Instr. 

aMii 

JIMH 

JIMU 

aMii 

JIMU 

JIMU 

a»B 

JIM  II 

eiiaMii 

Prep. 

ax^ 

flXl 

HX-b 

axx 

flXT> 

AXl 

axi 

,» 

en  an. 

EXAMPLES  OF  THE  FIRST  DECLENSION. 

Singular  Number. 


Animate  Object. 

Inanimate  Object. 

Inanimate  Object. 

Animate  Object 

H.  3. 

CJOei, 
elephant. 

CTO.Il, 

table. 

nOKOH, 

rest,  or  room. 

flapb, 
Tsar. 

P. 

CJOIia, 
of  an  elephant. 

CTOJ^, 

of  a  table. 

noKoa, 
of  rest,  &c. 

qapa, 
of  a  Tsar. 

4- 

C-iOHy, 
to  an  elephant. 

CTOJy, 
to  a  table. 

HOKOIO, 
to  rest,  &c. 

ijapro, 
to  a  Tsar. 

B. 

(MO  Ha, 
an  elephant. 

CTOJIX, 

a  table. 

noKofi, 
rest,  &c. 

papa, 
a  Tsar. 

T. 

C.10HOMI, 
by  an  elephant. 

CTOJOMl, 

by  a  table. 

noKoeMi, 
with  rest,  &c. 

nape'Mi, 
by  a  Tsar. 

n. 

0  CJOH*, 

about  an  elephant. 

Ha  CTOJ*, 
on  a  table. 

Bl  HOKO-B, 

at  rest,  &c. 

iipn  uajrfi, 
in  the  presence  o 
a  Tsar. 

Plural  Number. 


Animate  Object. 

Inanimate  Object. 

Inanimate  Object. 

Animate  Object. 

H.  3. 

C-IOHbl, 

Cmiti, 

noKon, 

ijapn, 

elephants. 

tables. 

rooms. 

Tsars. 

P. 

C.IOHOBT), 

CTOJOBl, 

noKoeB-b, 

n;ap£ft, 

of  elephants. 

of  tables. 

of  rooms. 

of  Tsars. 

4- 

CJIOHaMl, 

CTOJaMl, 

IIOKOflMT>, 

ijapairb, 

to  elephants. 

to  tables. 

to  rooms. 

to  Tsars. 

B. 

CJOHOBT), 

CTOJM, 

DOKO0, 

ijap6E, 

elephants. 

tables. 

rooms. 

Tsars. 

T. 

C.TOnflMH, 

CTOJaMH, 

nOKOSMH, 

qapaMH, 

by  elephants. 

by  tables. 

with  rooms. 

by  Tsars. 

n. 

0  C.IOHaXT), 

na  cto.iaxT), 

BT>  nOK03XT>, 

np0  ijapaxi), 

about  elephants. 

on  tables. 

in  rooms. 

in  the  presence  of 

Tsars. 

Singular  Number. 


Animate  Object. 

Inanimate  Object. 

Inanimate  Object. 

Inanimate  Object. 

H.  3. 

•ibcien.'b, 
flatterer. 

crop. 

trophy. 

FB03AB, 

nail. 

P. 

jibcteija, 
of  a  flatterer. 

ypOJKaa, 
of  a  crop. 

of  a  trophy. 

of  a  nail. 

4- 

jbcieijy', 
to  a  flatterer. 

ypomaro, 
to  a  crop. 

Tpo*e"io, 
to  a  trophy. 

to  a  nail. 

B. 

jbcxeita, 
a  flatterer. 

ypoffiaii, 
a  crop. 

Tpo*£ii, 
a  trophy. 

a  nail. 

T. 

n. 

X 

by  a  flatterer. 
/ 

about  a  flatterer. 

ypoataeitfi, 
by  a  crop. 

about  a  crop. 

with  a  trophy, 
about  a  trophy. 

by  a  nail. 

/ 

about  a  nail. 

Plural  Number. 


i 

H.  3. 

.IbCTCIJb'l, 

ypoataH, 

Tpo*e"H, 

FBOSAH, 

flatterers. 

crops. 

trophies. 

nails. 

P. 

JbCienoBi 

ypOHt&JB'b. 

s 

TpOvCcB  D« 

rB03#£0» 

of  flatterers. 

of  crops. 

of  trophies. 

of  nails. 

4- 

jbCieija'M'b, 

ypojKaflM-b, 

TpooeaMt, 

FBOS^aMX, 

to  flatterers. 

to  crops. 

to  trophies. 

to  nails. 

B. 

JbCTeiJOBl, 

ypoatan, 

TPO*^H, 

TBOSAH, 

flatterers. 

crops. 

trophies. 

nails. 

. 

• 

T. 

.IbCTeiJHMH. 

ypoataaMH, 

TpO*cHMH, 

TBOS^aMHj 

by  flatterers. 

by  crops. 

with  trophies. 

by  nails. 

n. 

o  .ibCTerjaxb, 

00i>  y  pO/ttai/iX  D» 

o  ipose'ax'b, 

i 

about  flatterers. 

about  crops. 

about  trophies. 

about  nails. 

i  

EXAMPLES  OF   THE   SECOND   DECLENSION. 


Singular  Number. 


Animate  Object. 

Inanimate  Object. 

Inanimate  Object. 

Inanimate  Object. 

H.  3. 

CTapocia, 

3B-B3AS, 

ny*Jfl, 

itfnb, 

headman. 

star. 

bullet. 

chain. 

P. 

ciapocTbi, 

3Bt3A&, 

ny\iH, 

q-BDH, 

of  a  headman. 

•  of  a  star. 

of  a  bullet. 

of  a  chain. 

• 

• 

t 

4- 

CTapocrfc, 

3B'E34*, 

nyJ"B, 

irftn, 

to  a  headman. 

to  a  star. 

to  a  bullet. 

to  a  chain. 

B. 

ciapocty, 

BBtSAy, 

nyjro, 

iVfcnb, 

a  headman. 

a  star. 

a  bullet. 

a  chain. 

t 

T. 

CTapOCTOK), 

38*34610, 

nyjero, 

ntaftDj 

by  a  headman. 

by  a  star. 

by  a  bullet. 

with  a  chain. 

n. 

0  ciapOCTt, 

/ 

0  ny-i*, 

ea  utiiii, 

about  a  headman. 

in  a  star. 

about  a  bullet- 

on  a  chain. 

Plural  Number. 


I 

H.  3. 

CTapOCTU, 

3B-B34H, 

nyJB, 

ilinH, 

headmen. 

stars. 

bullets. 

chains. 

P. 

CTapOCTl, 

1 

nyjb, 

il'Tiiieii, 

of  headmen. 

of  stars. 

of  bullets. 

of  chains. 

• 

. 

4- 

CTapoctairb, 

3B*3AaMl>, 

uyjaMi, 

uftnuWLf 

to  headmen. 

to  stars. 

to  bullets. 

to  chains. 

• 

r 

B. 

CTapociy, 

3B*B3  AM, 

nyje, 

ITBIIH, 

headmen. 

stars. 

bullets. 

chains. 

T. 

CTapociaMH, 

/ 

ny-iHMH, 

Hl;naMH, 

by  headmen. 

by  stars. 

by  bullets. 

with  chains. 

n. 

o  CTapocxaxi, 

r 

o  ny^axi, 

BI  ^•B^flx^, 

about  headmen. 

in  stars. 

about  bullets. 

in  chains. 

Singular  Number. 


Animate  Object. 

Animate  Object. 

Inanimate  Object. 

Inanimate  Object. 

H.  3. 

capoia, 

A«4H, 

•exitt] 

KHCTb, 

orphan. 

uncle. 

week. 

bunch,  or  wrist. 

P. 

CBPOTU, 

4«4H, 

HGAi-IH, 

KUCTH, 

of  an  orphan. 

of  an  uncle. 

of  a  week. 

of  a  bunch,  &c. 

4- 

CHPOTB, 

AHA*, 

Begirt, 

KHCTH, 

to  an  orphan. 

to  an  uncle. 

to  a  week. 

to  a  bunch,  &c. 

B. 

cepoiy, 

4H4H), 

eeAtJH), 

KHCTb, 

an  orphan. 

an  uncle. 

a  week. 

a  bunch,  &c. 

T. 

CHPOTOK), 

ABACK). 

eeAtJero, 

KHCTbH), 

by  an  orphan. 

by  an  uncle. 

by  a  week. 

with  a  bunch,  &c. 

n. 

0  CHPOTB, 

npa  AH4*, 

Bl  HeA*JfB, 

Bl  KIICTH, 

about  an  orphan. 

in  the  presence  of 

in  a  week. 

in  a  bunch,  &c. 

an  uncle. 

Plural  Number. 


Animate  Object. 

Animate  Object. 

Inanimate  Object. 

Inanimate  Object. 

H.  3. 

cnpoTW, 

i 

ee/jlUH, 

KMCTH, 

orphans. 

uncles. 

weeks. 

bunches,  &c. 

P. 

CHPOTT., 

AflAeft, 

nefliib, 

KHCTefi, 

of  orphans. 

of  uncles. 

of  weeks. 

of  bunches,  &c. 

4- 

CHpoiaMt, 

i 

HeAlUflMt, 

KBCTaMl, 

to  orphans. 

to  uncles. 

to  weeks. 

to  bunches,  &c. 

B. 

ceporB, 

A«Aeft, 

He^iiH, 

KHCTB, 

orphans. 

uncles. 

weeks. 

bunches,  &c. 

T. 

cnpdiaMO, 

AHAHMH, 

HeAilflMH, 

KHCTHMH, 

by  orphans. 

by  uncles. 

by  weeks. 

with  bunches,  &c. 

n. 

o  CHpdtaxi, 

npn  4;ijnxT>, 

B  D  H  (.  fj  L.TfIX  D* 

B1  KHCTHXt, 

about  orphans. 

in  the  presence  of 

in  weeks. 

in  bunches,  &c. 

uncles. 

EXAMPLES  OF  THE  THIRD  DECLENSION. 

Singular  Number. 


Inanimate  Object. 

Inanimate  Object. 

Inanimate  Object. 

Inanimate  Object. 

H.  3. 

A&IO, 

dCmecrso, 

n6ie, 

HMfl, 

affair. 

society. 

field. 

name. 

P. 

Aiia, 

<56meciBa, 

s 

iiMenn, 

of  an  affair. 

of  society. 

of  a  field. 

of  a  name. 

4- 

r 

dOineciBy, 

no-no, 

inKMlII, 

to  an  affair. 

to  society. 

to  a  field. 

to  a  name. 

B. 

A-B.IO, 

dfiojecTBO, 

ndjie, 

HMfl, 

an  affair. 

society. 

a  field. 

a  name. 

T. 

i 

66meCTBOMT>, 

ndjeMi., 

imeHesn,, 

with  an  affair. 

by  society. 

with  a  field. 

with  a  name. 

n. 

/ 

BT>  66meCTB'fej 

Ha  no.rii. 

o6i>  I'IMCHH, 

about  an  affair. 

in  society. 

in  a  field. 

about  a  name. 

Plural  Number. 


n.  3. 

A^a, 

66mecTBa, 

nojfl, 

HMCna, 

affairs. 

societies. 

fields. 

names. 

p. 

A-B.II>, 

dGmecTBT., 

no-ieii, 

HMeni, 

of  affairs. 

of  societies. 

of  fields. 

of  names. 

4- 

A-BJaMi, 

dfimecTBaan., 

t 

HM01!UMT>, 

to  affairs. 

to  societies. 

to  fields. 

to  names. 

B. 

AtJa, 

odmeciBa, 

no.™, 

HMena, 

affairs. 

societies. 

fields. 

names. 

T. 

A*JaMH, 

66mecTsaMH, 

HO^flMH, 

IIMCIlaMH, 

by  affairs. 

by  societies. 

with  fields. 

with  names. 

n. 

o  At-iiirfc, 

BT>  d(5mecTBaxx, 

BT>  no.iaxi, 

061  HMeHaxi, 

about  affairs. 

in  societies. 

in  fields. 

about  names. 

Singular  Number. 


Plural  Number. 


Anira.  or  Inanim. 

Inanimate  Object. 

Aniin.  or  Inanim. 

Inanimate  Object. 

H.  3. 

x 

face,  or  person. 

aepitajo, 
mirror. 

faces,  or  persons. 

86pK84&) 

mirrors. 

P. 

.iiiqa, 
of  a  face,  &c. 

sepKa.ia, 
of  a  mirror. 

of  faces,  &c. 

ot  mirrors. 

4- 

to  a  face,  &c. 

to  a  mirror. 

/ 
to  faces,  &c. 

to  mirrors. 

B. 

jequ, 
a  face,  &c. 

3t'{)i;;uo, 
a  mii'ror. 

juqa, 
faces,  &c. 

3epKa.ia, 
mirrors. 

T. 

x 

by  a  face,  &c. 

3l'l)K,'LK)M'L, 

with  a  mirror. 

/ 
by  faces,  'fee. 

with  mirrors. 

n. 

na  Jim  (;, 
on  a  face,  &c. 

BT>  3epKa.it, 
in  a  mirror. 

about  faces,  &c. 

in  mirrors. 

§  39.  Rules  for  the  Declensions. 

(1)  Nouns  substantive,  taken  from  foreign  languages,  and  which 
end  in  "6,  u  and  &>  are  declined  according  to  the  first  declension  : 
Ex.  CK)JKei5  subject,  aHTHKBapiw  antiquary,  B6KC6J&  bill  of  exchange. 
Those  which  end  in  a  and  H,  and  also  in  &,  and  which  are  of  the 
feminine  gender,  are  declined  according  to  the  second  declension : 
Ex.  4>pa30  phrase,  apivfi/j  army,  MOAG.I&  model.     Nouns  taken  from 
foreign    languages,   and   which   terminate    in  0,  e}  u,  y,  are   not 
declined  at  all :    Ex.  ^eno   depot,  JKC-ie  jelly,   KOJMOpH   humming- 
bird, KaKa^y  cockatoo,  &c. 

(2)  The  vowel  bi  is  never  found  after  the  letters  r,  at,  K,  x,  H,  m,  m  : 
it  is  changed  in  such  a  case  into  u.     For  this  reason  the  nominative 
case  of  the  plural   number  of  nouns  which  end  in  5  are  not  quite 
according  to  the  ordinary  rule.     Ex.  Bpam  enemies   (from  spars), 
uo'fKu  knives  (from   HOIKD),  HY-IKM.  stockings   (from  HJMOKB),    &y\u 
spirits  (from  jyx5),  acmt  nights  (from  HOH&),  nituaiim  tents  (from 
raajaiii5),  njamu  cloaks  (from  ruams),  &c.,  instead  of  Bparbi,  no/Kbi, 
qyjKb'l,  &c.     In   like  manner  the  genitive  case   of    the    singular 
number  and  the  nominative   case  of  the  plural' number  of  nouns 
ending  in  a  are — Kimrn  books  (from  KUHIY&),  Be.ibMO5KW  grandees 
(from  BCJbMO/Ka),  pyKw  hands  (from  pvKti),  and  not  Kuarbi,  Be^BMOJKb?, 
pyKb'i,  &c. 

(3)  After  the  same  letters,  too  (r,  at,  K,  x,  M,  m,  m,  and  K  also),  a  and 
K)  never  follow.  In  place  of  a,  a  must  be  written,  and  in  place  of 
K),  y.  Ex.  In  the  genitive  case  singular  we  find  cep^ua,  and  not 
(from  cepjae,  heart).  So,  too,  in  the  dative  case  of  the  same 


(     16    ) 


word  we  have  cepAuy,  and  not  cepAiw.     Similarly  the  dative  case 
of  jKHJnmtf  (dwelling-)  is  jKH.iHmy,  and  not  jKBMHmw. 

(4)  Nouns  substantive  which  end  in  i^e  are  declined  after  the 
manner  of  those  which  end  in  0,  except  that  the  instrumental  case 
of  the  singular  number,   instead  of  OMI,  has  CMI.     Ex.  cep^aeMt 
(from  cepaue  heart),  noJOieHneMt  (from  noJOieHue  towel),  and  the 
like.     Those  nouns  which  terminate  in   no  accented  have  in   the 
instrumental  case  of  the  singular  number  OMti  :  Ex.   anijoMt  (from 
HHUO  egg),  jauoMt  (from  AEU,O  face,  or  person). 

(5)  All  words  containing  the  letters  JK,  n,  H,  m,  m,  which  carry 
in  the  instrumental  case  of  the  singular  number  the  accent  (y^ape- 
HJe)  on  the  last  syllable  have  OMt,  and  not  CMT>,  for  the  termination 
of  that  case.     Ex.  HOJKOM-L  (from  HOJKT,  knife),  OTUOMT>   (from  OTeirL 
father),   &c.     Similar  words  which   do  not  carry  the  accent  on  the 
last  syllable  have  CMT.,  and  not  GMT.,   for  the  termination  of  that 
case  :  Ex.  MyraeMt  (from  MVJKT>  man,  husband),  MtcaueMt  (from  Mi>- 
cam>  month),  &c. 

(6)  In  the  declensions  the  letter  /b  never  follows  the  letter  *.    Con- 
sequently, in  the  dative  and  prepositional  cases  of  the  singular  number 
of  nouns  which  end  in  in  it  is  necessary  to  write  #,  and  not  /&  :  Ex. 
<DpaHaiH,  to  France  (from  <I>paHEUfl)  ;  0-iihiH,  about  a  lily  (from  jiuifl). 
The    same   rule   is   preserved   in   the  prepositional  case,   singular 
number,  of  nouns  which  end  in  iu  and  ie.     Thus  Ilpa  AHToniH,  In 
the  time  of  Anthony  (from  AHTOHIW)  ;  BT>  coHHHeHia,  in  the  com- 
position (from  COH  a  Henie);  &c. 

(7)  Nouns  feminine  which  terminate  in  6  also  have  in  the  dative 
and  prepositional  cases  of  the  singular  number  u,  and  not  /&  :  Ex. 
BT,  Cii()Hpn,  in  Siberia  (from  CH6ap&),  &c. 

(8)  In  nouns  masculine  which  terminate  in  &,  the  genitive  case 
of  the  singular  number  has  a  :  Ex.  tfRb  day,  AH/Z  ;  3Bep&  wild  beast, 
3fiip^.     In  nouns  of  a  like  termination,  but  of  the  feminine  gender, 
the  termination  of  the  same  case  of  the  same  number  has  u  :   Ex. 
rfeH&  shadow,  T^HW  ;  ABep&  door,  pepM.     To  the  first  part  of  this 
rule  the  following  word  is  the  sole  exception  :    nyi&  (road),  which 
although  of  the  masculine  gender,  has  for  the  termination  of  its 
genitive    case    singular   w,  —  thus,    uviu.      Moreover,   this    word 
departs  generally  from  the  common  rules  laid  down  for  the  declen- 
sions.    (Vide  ^41.) 

(9)  A  few  nouns  of  the  masculine  gender  ending  in  &  take,  in  the 


(     17     ) 

nominative  case  of  the  plural  number,  the  termination  of  the 
genitive  case  of  the  singular  number — with  this  difference,  that  the 
accent  is  shifted  to  the  last  syllable  :  Ex.  BeKceJ&  bill  of  exchange, 
plur.  BCKce.1/? ;  nncap&  writer,  plur.  nacap/z,  &c, 

(10)  In  nouns  substantive  which  terminate  in  ie,  the  nominative 
case  of  the  plural  number  has  a,  and  not  u :  Ex.  JKejaHifl  wishes, 
(from  weA&m'e),  not  HtejaHm,  &c.     The  genitive  case  of  the  plural 
number  of  these  nouns  ends  in  iu,  and  not  in   eei> :  Ex.  JKeiam'w, 
and  nut  jKCJametfff,  &c. 

(11)  Nouns  substantive  which  terminate  in  in  also  have  in  the 
genitive  case  of  the  plural  number  iu :  Ex.  Jimm  lily,  Ji&jiiu,  &c. 

(12)  Nouns  substantive  which  terminate  in  &/z  have  in  the  genitive 
case  of  the  plural  number  eu,  for  which   reason  the   letter   &   is 
dropped  in  the  oblique  cases  :  Ex.  cy/j&/?  judge,  cy&eu,  &c. 

(13)  Nouns  substantive  which  end  in   en  and  /&/?  change  in  the 
genitive  case  of  the  plural  number  the  final  letter  n  into  u  :  Ex. 
WBeu  seamstress,  IIIBCM  ;  3M/&#  snake,  3Ml>w,  &c. 

(14)  Nouns  which  end  in  &,  and  in  which  the  letters  OK,  u,  w,  ui, 
are  found,  also  have  in  the  genitive  case  of  the   plural   number   eu : 
Ex.  HO?Kew,  (from    HOJKS)  ;    M6H/M,   (from  MCI&) ;    majiaffleM,  (from 
majanis) ;  n.iarne«  (from  iLiams),  &c. 

(15)  Nouns  which  end  in  w^e  have  in  the  genitive  case  of  the 
plural  number  5  for   their  final  termination :  Ex.  yHH.iHW{e  school, 
YHHJinm8,  &c. 

(16)  Nouns  which  terminate  in  KO  have  in  the  nominative  case 
of  the  plural  number  u  instead  of  a  for  their  final  letter :  Ex.  IWJIOKO 
apple,  plur.   /I&IOKU  ;  but  BOHCKO  army,  troops,  and  66.iaK0  cloud, 
are    exceptions  to   this  rule,  as   we  find    BOHCKO-    armies,   o6.iaKa 
clouds. 

(17)  Many  material  nouns,  of  the  masculine  gender,  which  ter- 
minate in  5,  #,  and  6,  when  placed  after  words  denoting  weight  or 
measure, .  take  in  the  genitive  case  of  the  singular   number   the 
termination  of  the  dative  case  of  the  same  number,  i.e.  take  the 
final  letters  TO  and  y,  instead  of  the  letters  peculiar  to  their  proper 
terminations,  viz.  a  and  a.     Ex.  ciaKans  Maw  (not  Ma^).  from  Haw, 
cup  of  tea;  apmnntf  auacy  (not  aT.iaca),  from  auacs,  arsheen,  or 
Russian  ell,  of  satin,  &c.     When,  however,  the  same  nouns  stand 
after  words  which  do  not  express  measure  or  weight,  then    the 
terminations  of  their  genitive  case  (singular)  are  according  to  the 

c 


(     18    ) 

ordinary  rule,  i.e.  in  a  and  n,  and  not  in  y  and  jo :  Ex.  BKVC& 
flavour  of  tea ;  ni}KHOCT&  auaca,  softness  of  satin,  &c. 

(18)  The  accusative  case,  singular  number,  of  nouns  of  the  mas- 
culine gender  which  terminate  in  K,  u,  &,  is,  in  the  declension  of  the 
inanimate  and  abstract  nouns,  like  the    nominative ;  and,  in  that 
of  the  animate  nouns,  like  the  genitive.     Ex.  a  BHJKy1  (qio?)  cmis, 
CTOJM  ;    pynew,    pyHB^  ;    K0pa6j&,    K0pa6.m — I   see   (what  /)   table, 
tables;  brook,  brooks ;  ship,  ships,     fl  BHIK^  (KOFO?)   6pai#,  6par&<?05 ; 
MypaB&/£,  MypaBe'0& ;  3Bf>p/z,  3Bepe# — I  see  (whom  or  what  ?}  brother, 
brothers ;  ant,  ants  ;  wild  beast,  wild  beasts.     The  accusative  case, 
singular  number,  of  nouns  of  the  masculine  and  feminine  genders, 
which  terminate  in  a,  is  in  y  :  Ex.  cjyra,  man-servant,  cjyn/ ;  KHHIYZ 
book,  KHHry.     Similarly  the  accusative  case,  singular  number,  of 
nouns  of  the  masculine  and  feminine  genders,  which  terminate  in  /z, 
is  in  w.  Ex.  cyflijf  judge,  cyAb/o  ;  nyj/z  bullet,  np/o.    The  accusa- 
tive case,  singular  number,  of  nouns  of  the  feminine  gender,  which 
terminate  in  &,  is  always  like  the  nominative.     The  same  remark 
applies   too   to   all   nouns   of    the    neuter    gender,    without    any 
distinction.     The  accusative  case,  plural  number,  of  nouns  of  any 
gender    is,    in    the   declension    of   the    inanimate  nouns,  like  the 
nominative,  and  in  the  declension  of  the  animate  nouns,  like  the 
genitive. 

Obs. — Collective  nouns,  even  though  they  may  denote  a 
collection  of  animate  objects  of  either  the  masculine  or 
neuter  genders,  are  declined  in  the  accusative  case  like 
the  inanimate  nouns  :  Ex.  OHT.  paaStus2  /^npia'reJLCKiM 
He  defeated  the  enemy's  regiment ;  J3acTyx5 
eraflo,  The  shepherd  drove  in  the  flock,  &c. 

(19)  The  Vocative  is,  as  a  general  rule,  like  the  nominative;  yet 
in  certain  nouns  it  has  a  peculiar  termination  of  its  own,  borrowed 
from  the  Church  Slavonic  tongue:  Ex.  Eor&  God,  voc.  EoJKe;  Oieus 
Father,  voc.  OTH£,  &c. 

(20)  Nouns  which  terminate  in  MR  change  n  in  all  the  oblique 
cases  of  both  numbers  into  e :  Ex.  BpeJW/&  time,  BpeMe/w ; 

&c.     One   word  alone  with  this  primary  termination  of 


1  Present  tense  of  the  verb  BHA-feib.     Trans. 

2  Past  tense  of  the  verb  paaSnrb.     Trans. 

3  Past  tense  of  the  verb  npHFH&Tf>.     Tram. 


(     19    ) 

retains  in  the  genitive  case,  plural  number,  the  letter  a :  this   word 
is  C&MH  seed,  d>M/?«5  of  seeds. 

(21)  The  words  He6o  heaven,  and  4^40  miracle,  in  the  cases  of 
the  plural  number  have  nom.  He6eca,  ny^eca- ;   gen.  He6ecff,  nyflecff, 
and  so  on.     But  when  by  the  use  of  the  word  vfao  is   understood 

monster,  qy^o   forms  its  plural  thus,   Hy/jw,  Hy^tf,  ny- 
,  &c. 

(22)  The  following  nouns  and  a  few  others  form  their  genitive  case 
plural  like  their  nominative  case  singular ;  in  other  words,  there 
is  no  change  in  form  between  the  two  cases :  Ex.  qe.iOBi>K&,  man  (or 
of  men) ;    coj/jarff,  soldier  (or  of  soldiers)';  /jparyHS,  dragoon  (or  of 
dragoons) ;    rycaps,  hussar   (or  of  hussars) ;    y.iaH5,  Uhlan   (or  of 
Uhlans) ;  Ka^eTg,  cadet  (or  of  cadets) ;  TypoKtf,  Turk  (or  of  Turks) ; 
rpeHa£ep&,  grenadier  (or  of  grenadiers) ;    peKpyitf,  recruit   (or    of 
recruits)  ;    apniHH5,  arsheen   (or  of  arsheens)  ;  ny^5,   pood  (or    of 
poods)  ;  HyjoKtf,  stocking  (or  of  stockings) ;   canorff,  boot   (or   of 
boots),  and  others.     Hence  it  is  not  correct  to  speak  of  coj/taioes, 
rycapo05,  apniHHoes,   nyAo'05,    ny.iKo<?&,   canoro0&,   &c.      The    word 
cajKeub   (a   sajen,  or  Rusian  fathom)  in  the  genitive  case,   plural 
number,  has  ca*KeH5,  and  not  caJKeii&  or  caateH<?#. 

(23)  Certain  nouns,,  which  terminate  in  5  and  &,  take  in  the  pre- 
positional case  of  the  singular  number  y  or  TO,  instead  of  /&.     In  all 
such  cases  the  accent  falls  on  the  final  syllable  :  Ex.  na  6oi»/  on 
the  side  or  flank,  from  6oK&;    BI»  j&cy  in  the  forest,  from  .ite; 
BT>  paw  in  Paradise,  from  paw ;  &c. 

§  40.  The  following  are  some  examples  of  nouns  substantive 
which  depart  from  the  ordinary  rules  of  declension  : — 

(1)  Nouns  which  terminate  in  anum  and  mum  have  in  the 
plural  number  special  terminations. 

Plural  Number. 


(Animate  Objects.) 

N.  &  V.  H.  3.  AnrjHiaHe,  Englishmen. 

G.  P.    AHiMBiaBT.,  of  Englishmen. 

D.  4.     AeiMeiaHaMT,,  to  Englishmen. 

A.  B.    AHrJHHaei,  Englishmen. 

I.  T.    AnriHiaHaMH,  by  Englishmen. 

P.  n.    06i  AHrinidHaxT>,  about  Englishmen. 


(Animate  Objects.) 

peasants. 
KpecTbani,  of  peasants. 
KpecTbawaMt,  to  peasants. 
KpecTbaHT),  peasants. 
KpecibflHaMH,  by  peasants. 
0  KpecTbaeaxi,  about  peasants. 


N.B. — The  singular  number  of  nouns  substantive  terminating  in  dnuns  and 
ftnum  is  declined  according  to  the  examples  given  of  the  first  declension  (vide 
paragraph  38). 


(     20    ) 

(2)  Nouns  Substantive  terminating  in  emiw  are  declined  in  loth 
numbers  according  to  the  following  examples  : 

Singular    Number. 


(Animate  Objects.) 

N.  &  V.  H.  3.  TejenoR^,  calf.  • 
G.           P.    Te^eHKa,  of  a  calf. 
D.  4-    Te^eHKy,  to  a  calf. 

A.  B.    TejeHKa,  a  calf. 

I.  T.    TejeHKOMi,,  by  a  calf. 

P.  n.    0  Te-ieHK-B,  about  a  calf. 


(Animate  Objects.) 
Bo-neHOKT.,  wolf's  cub. 
Bo-iie'HKa,  of  a  wolf's  cub. 
Bo-iie'BKy,  to  a  wolf's  cub. 
BoJieeKa,  a  wolf's  cub. 
BOJICHKOMI,  by  a  wolf's  cub. 
0  BojieHKt,  about  a  wolf's  cub. 


Plural 


N.  &  V.    H.  3.  le-iaxa,  calves. 


G.  P.  Tejarb,  of  calves. 

D.  4-  TeJHTaMT),  to  calves. 

A.  B.  Te.iflTT>,  calves. 

I.  T.  Te.ifliaMH,  by  calves. 

P.  n.  0  Tejfliaxi,  about  calves. 


Bojiaia,  wolf's  cubs. 
Bo-naT"b,  of  wolf's  cubs. 
Bo-naxaMi,  to  wolf's  cubs, 
Bojqarb,  wolf's  cubs. 
B(MiaTaMn,  by  wolfs  cubs. 
0  Bojiaraxi),  about  Coif's  cubs. 


N.B. — According  to  the  above  two  examples  on  eHOKG  are  declined  pefieiiOKi 
child,  infant ;  atepefie'HOKi,  foal ;  arHenoKX,  lamb  ;  KOieeoKi,  kitten  ;  nopoce'BOK^,  suck- 
ing-pig ;  qbiiue'HOK'b,  chicken;  MeAB*neHOKT>,  bear's  cub.  But  .ibBeeoKt,  lion's  whelp, 
and  Mbime'noKT),  little  mouse,  respectively  make  their  nominative  case  plural  in  eeKH  ; 
thus,  JLB^HKH  and  Mbim^HKH,  and  not  -ibBaxa  and  Mbiuiaia. 


§  41.  The  following  nouns  substantive  depart  altogether  from 
the  ordinary  rules  of  declension  : — 

Singular  Number. 


Animate  Objects- 

Inanimate  Objects. 

Hi.  3.             AHTH, 
N.&V.           child. 

MaTi>, 
mother. 

IJepKOBb, 
church. 

Hyxb, 
road. 

P.                    4HTflTH, 

G.             of  child. 

Maiepn, 
of  a  mother. 

IJ^PKBH, 

of  a  church. 

HyxH 
of  a  road. 

4.                          40T«TH5 

D.             to  a  child. 

Maiepa, 
to  a  mother. 

LJepKBH, 
to  a  church, 

ny™, 

to  a  road. 

B.                      4HTH, 

A.              a  child. 

Maib, 
a  mother. 

IJepKOBb, 

a  church. 

Dyib, 
a  road. 

T.                   4HTHT6K), 

I.               by  child. 

11.                  0  4HTHT0, 

P.        about  a  child. 

Ma/repbK), 
by  a  mother. 

0  Marepn, 
about  a  mother. 

IJepKOBbK), 

by  a  church. 

Bi  I^^PKBH, 
in  a  church. 

nyiejTb, 
by  a  road. 

Ha  nyni, 
on  a  road. 

(    21     ) 
Plural  Number. 


H.  3.             Aim, 

N.&V.         children. 

MiVirjm, 
mothers. 

IJCPKBII, 

churches. 

Ilyiii, 
roads. 

P.                A*T£B> 
G.           of  children. 

Maiep£fi, 
of  mothers. 

HopKBcfi, 

of  churches. 

nyie'B, 
of  roads. 

4.                    4*THMl, 

D.          to  children. 

MaiepaMi, 
to  mothers. 

IJepKBaMl, 

to  churches. 

HyxaMTi, 
to  roads. 

B.               AtT^fi, 
A.             children. 

Marepefi, 
mothers. 

IJepKBHj 

churches. 

nyTH, 

roads. 

T.                    AtTbMH, 

I.           by  children. 

MaiepaMH, 
by  mothers. 

HCPKBUMH, 
by  churches. 

HyiaMB, 
with  roads. 

H.            0  A*Tarb, 
P.        about  children. 

0  Maxepaxi), 
about  mothers. 

B-b  IJepKBaxx, 
in  churches. 

0  nytaxT), 

about  roads. 



Obs. — The  word  AOH&  (daughter)  is  declined  like  Mai&. 


rocno4b,  Lord, 
rdcno^a,  of  the  Lord. 
r6cno4y,  to  the  Lord, 
rdcno/ia,  the  Lord. 
FOCDO^H  !  O  Lord  I 
r6cno40MX,  by  the  Lord. 
0  rdcnoAt,  about  the  Lord. 


N.  H.  XpecToci,  Christ. 

G.  P.  XpacTa,  of  Christ. 

D.  A-  XpHCiy,  to  Christ. 

A.  B.  Xpecia,  Christ. 

V.  3.  XPHCT£  !  O  Christ ! 

I.  T.  XpiicidMi,  by  Christ. 

P.  0.  0  XpHCTt,  about  Christ. 


§  42.  The  following  words  have  special  inflections  both  in  the 
genitive  case  singular,  in  the  other  oblique  cases  of  that  number, 
and  in  all  the  cases  of  the  plural  number : — 

(1)  By  changing  the  intermediate  letter  e  of  the  nominative  case 
singular  into  6  : — 

Ex.    JeBT>,  lion,  JbBa.  Bopo6beii,  sparrow,  Bopotfba. 

Je'4T>,  ice,  jbja.  MypaBeii,  ant,  MypaBba. 

Jem,  flax,  Jbea.  Co.ioneii,  nightingale,  cojOBba. 

Pyie"ft,  brook,  pyiba.  JKiue'ij'b,  tenant,  HtEMbqa. 

yjett,  beehive,  yjba.  A*-^1^  statesman,  4i>.ibqa,  &c. 

(2)  By  changing  the  intermediate  letter  e  of  the  nominative  case 
singular  into  U  : — 

Ex.    Hae'Mi,  rent,  nafiMa,  I 

Sae'Mi,  loan,  aaiiMa.  I 

(3)  By  changing  the  intermediate  letter  a  of  the  nominative  case 
singular  into  u  : — 

Ex.  3aaqx,  hare,  saiiqa,  &c. 

(4)  By  the  elision  of  the  letter  e  of  the  nominative  case  sin- 
gular : — 


.  isthmus,  nepemefiKa. 
,  gladiator,  Oofiqa,  &c. 


Ex.  Mo.ie'tfeQi,  Te  Deum, 
IlfiBe.n,,  Paul,  EaB.ia, 
Ope'JT.,  eagle,  op.ia. 
KoTe4T>,  kettle,  Kowa. 
yse^x,  note,  y3.ia. 
nene.n>,  ashes,  ne"n.ia. 
Koae.n>,  he-goat,  K03.ia. 
Oce'JT.,  jackass,  donkey,  oc^a. 
KyneijT),  merchant,  Kynqa. 
OTeqi),  father,  oma. 
Kaaieeb,  stone,  uaMHa. 
Ileiib,  stump,  blockhead,  nun. 
b,  day,  4Hfl. 

strap,  pejma. 


KoBe'pi,  carpet,  Kospa. 
B-brepi,  wind,  Btipa. 
Ulaiepi,  tent,  inaipa. 
Kocxepi,  funeral  pile,  KOCipa. 
Xpefieii),  spine,  or  ridge,  xpe6ia 
Ernneii,  Egypt,  Erania. 
Ofleci,  oats,  OBca". 
Heel,  dog,  nca. 
A^HO^^,  lamb,  arnija. 

,  autocrat, 
,  stalk, 

KameJb,  cough, 
CejeaeHb,  drake,  cdiesna. 


(5)   By  the  elision  of  the  letter 
gular  : — 

COHI,  sleep,  cea. 
Oroeb,  fire,  ornA. 

b,  psalm,  ncaviMii. 
corner,  yr.ia. 
b,  charcoal,  ywa. 
yropb,  pimple,  yrpa. 
.Io6T>,  forehead,  Ji6&. 
noco.n>,  ambassador,  noc.ia. 
cover,  Mexja. 

crest,    tuft    of    hair, 
xox.ia. 

b,  harpoon,  Carpa. 
Byropi,  hillock,  6yrpa. 

Also  many  other  words  terminating  in  OKT>. 


o  of  the  nominative  case  sin- 

Bnxop-b,  tuft  of  hair,  BHXpa, 

CBe'KOpi),  father-in-law,  husband's  father, 

CBe'Kpa. 

POTT.,  mouth,  pia. 
3aMom>,  castle,  r.aMKa. 
Horoib,  nail,  Hona. 
^eroib,  tar,  pitch,  ^ena. 
3oBi,  call,  invitation,  sna. 
IIIOBi>,  seam,  msa. 

,  share, 
otb,  slice, 
,  elbow, 
,  stocking, 


§  43.  The   following   words   have   special  terminations  for  the 
nominative  case  of  the  plural  number : — 

OKO,  eye,  oin. 
yxo.  ear,  yme. 
pyKaBT>,  sleeve,  pyKasa. 
jieiiapb,  physician,  jeKapa. 
TJia.3T>,  eye,  wasa. 
6oapHHT>,  boyard,  6oape. 
6ap0HT),  gentleman,  master,  6ape. 
rocno40Hi,  lord,  master,  mister, 


,  master  of  the  house,  xoaaesa. 
raypaex,  brother-in-law,  wife's  brother, 

mypba. 
6pan>,  brother,  dpatba. 

,  Godfather,  a  gossip,  KjMOBba. 
,  friend, 
KH33b,  prince, 
c6jeq;e,  sun,  cojeqa. 
nepo,  pen,  nepba. 


The  following  nouns  have  two  terminations  in  the  nominative 
case  of  the  plural   number: — #OM5  house,  plur.  401^  and  AOM&/; 
tutor,   plur.  yHHTej^'   and  yiHTe.iM  ;    npo<i>eccop5  professor, 


(    23    ) 

plur.  npo$eccop«  and  npo*eccop&e.  The  first  of  these  terminations 
is  in  each  instance  the  more  frequently  used  in  the  language  of 
conversation,  and  the  latter  in  literature. 

The  following  nouns  (and  others  which  by  practice  can  easily  be 
ascertained)  have  the  termination  of  the  nominative  case  of  the 
plural  number  in  bH  :  — 

Ciy.n>,  chair,  ciy.ibfl  ;  npyrb,  twig,  rod,  npyiba  ;  cyicb,  branch,  bough,  cyiba. 

§  44.  The  following  nouns  have  in  the  plural  number  double 
terminations,  conveying  in  each  instance  different  meanings  :  — 

B  fiKi>,  B'EKH,  eyelids.  BiiKa,  centuries. 

x.i'fcfi'b,  xjiflbi,  loaves.  xj*6d,  grain  of  various  kinds. 

qstrb,  i^Btibi,  flowers.  ijBln'a,  colours. 

3y6i,  3y6bi,  teeth  in  the  mouth.  3y6bfl,  teeth  of  a  comb  or  of  a  saw. 

MlJXi,  JTBXH,  pair  of  bellows.  Mtxa,  furs  of  all  kinds. 

JIHCTI,  JBCTM,  leaves  of  a  book,  sheets  of       JHCTbfl,  leaves  of  a  tree. 

paper. 

MyHfb,  MyjKH,  men.  MyjKba,  husbands. 

CbiBT>,  cbiflOBba,  sons.  CUBM,  sons  of  the  fatherland  only. 

In  the  case  of  the  following  words  :  — 

j£peBO,  tree  or  wood,  ^epeea,  4ep^Bba. 
KaMenb,  stone,  KUMIIH,  Kaveiiba. 

yrojb,  charcoal,  yrJH,  yrojba. 

Kopenb,  root,  Kopnn,  KOpeHbfl. 

hook,  crook,  KpiOKii, 


The  latter  termination  is  used  in  a  collective  sense  only. 
KOJ^HO  (knee)  has  for  its  plural   KO^iflW   and    KO.ii>Ha,,  the  last 
signifying  race  or  generation. 

§  45.  The  following  nouns   have   special   terminations    in    the 
genitive  case  of  the  plural  number  :  — 

In  etit,        CBd^bCa,  wedding,  genitive  plur.  csa4e6i. 

c^4b6a,  fate,  destiny,  „  cy^fo. 

TflHtfa,  lawsuit,  „  Taate6x. 

In  eis,        Aeebra,  copeck,  „  4^neri. 

cepbra,  earring,  „  ceperx. 

In  ot»,        poara,  rod,  „  pdaon. 

In  e«5,        me'ttKa,  finger-board,  „  nieeKi. 

,  cradle,  „  JWjeKi. 

nurse-maid,  „  II/IHCKX. 

spoon,  „  Joa?eKi. 

,  small  hand,  handle,  .       „  pyieni. 

,  ring,  link,  „  KOJeqeKi. 

,  little  window,  „  OKOiueK'b. 
And  so  too  have  other  nouns  whose  nominative  case  singular  ends  in  IKO  and  mico. 


(     24    ) 


In  OK&, 


In  CM, 


In  aJit, 
In  o.J5, 


In  e.\b} 


In  eMt, 


In  t'H5, 


35 
JJ 

5) 
» 

» 

JJ 
»> 

33 

» 

J3 


peMece.il. 
i0ce.il. 


CBH3Ka,  bundle,  ^».  plur.     CBBSOKI. 

6a6Ka,  grandmother,  midwife.  „          6a6oK'b. 

flOCKa,  board,  plank,  „          AOCOKT>. 

naiKa,  stick, 

HeiMa,  broom, 

C-B4JO,  saddle 

Bec.io,  ear, 

peMec^o,  trade,  craft, 

H0CJO,  number, 

sepKa-io,  mirror, 

KyKja,  doll,  „          KyKOJi. 

3-10,  evil,  „          30JX. 

(This   word   is   used  in  the  genitive  case  only  of  the 
plural  number.) 

CTCKJ6,  glass,  i.e.  pane  of  gen.  plur. 

glass,  and  mirror  glass, 
HiMa,  needle, 

Kpdfijfl,  roof, 
Kanja,  drop, 
ca6.ia,  a  sabre, 
II£T.IH,  noose, 
36M.ia,  earth, 
niicbMo,  letter, 
TiopbMa,  prison, 
KOp'iMa,  inn, 
TbMa,  darkness, 

(When  TbMa  means  number.   In  the  Ancient  Slavonic 
reckoning  this  word  signified  ten  thousand.) 


» 

Hroj'i,. 

n 

KpOBP.lb. 

» 

nanejb. 

j) 

ca6e.ib. 

n 

nete\Jb. 

n 

SCM^Jb. 

| 

a 

HHCCM'b. 

» 

TIOPCMT). 

u 

KOp^^MT,. 

5> 

T6MT,. 

CpeBBo,  beam,  genitive  plur. 

cocna,  fir-tree, 

sepeo,  grain,  kernel, 

6oflHa,  slaughter-house, 

HOJOTHO,  linen, 

KynajbHa,  bathing-place, 

cy4HO,  vessel, 

cnajbea,  bedroom, 

rpiiBna,  ten  copeck-piece, 

Beiepea,  vespers, 

HapeBiia,  title  of   the  Russian 

Imperial  Princess, 
ofii^ea,  Mass, 

KHJI JKiiti,  unmarried  Princess, 
song, 

i,  custom-house, 
6^CHa,  tale,  a  story, 
BBinea,  cherry-tree, 
6ainea,  tower, 


» 
»> 
>» 
» 
» 
» 

t) 
» 
» 

>» 
» 
j> 
» 
» 

» 
»> 


6pe'Beei. 
coceei. 
sepeHi. 
OoeHi. 


Kynajem. 


cnajeHi. 
rpHBeei,. 


I^ap^BeHi. 

Koa/KeHX. 


TaMoaieei. 

Oacein,. 


In  ettb, 


In  OH5, 


In  ep?, 


In  #(5, 


aepeBHH,  village,  hamlet, 

mine, 

,  bake-house, 
H,  quarry, 

KyXHa,  kitchen, 
OKBO,  window, 
cyKHo,  cloth, 
cecrpa,  sister, 
Bejp6,  pail, 
flApo,  kernel, 
pe6p6,  rib, 
no-ioi^Hije,  towel, 
OBIJ£,  sheep,  ewe, 
KO-ibijo,  ring, 
cep4ije,  heart, 

flight  of  steps, 


KyXOHT.. 

OKOHT). 

C^KOH-b. 

cecrepi. 


fljepi. 
pe6ep-b. 


N.B. — The  genitive  case,  plural,  of  Kymaete  food,  is  KyraaHbGBi, 
and  of  noMtCTLe  an  estate  noM'ficxiii. 

§  46.  Nouns  which  are  used  in  the  plural  number  only  are  de 
clined,  if  of  the  masculine  gender,  according  to  the  first  declension  ; 
if  of  the  feminine  gender,  according  to  the  second  declension ;  and 
if  of  the  neuter  gender,  according  to  the  third'  declension.  The 
gender  of  such  nouns  is  ascertainable  by  their  nominative  and 
genitive  cases  : — 

(1)  Nouns  which  terminate  in  the  nominative  case  in  bi  or  u,  and 
in  the  genitive  in  eeti  or  06V,  are  of  the  masculine  gender.     Ex. 
mnnu&{,  pair  of  tongs,  nunmo0& ;  THCKM,  press,  vice,  THCKo'05;    o66w, 
hangings,  tapestry,  oftoeez.      The  following  is  an  exception  :  OKOB&I, 
chains,  fetters,  owed.     This  noun  is  of  the  feminine  gender. 

(2)  Any  other  nouns  which  terminate  in  the  nominative  case  in 
61  or  u,  and  in  the  genitive  case  in  any  sort  of  termination,  are  all 
of  the  feminine  gender.     Ex.  canw,  sledge,  caee'w ;  HOHtHEm&z,  pair 
of  scissors,  HOJKHHUS;  CJHBKM,  cream,  CARBOKV.     The    following   is 
an  exception  :    JIKVJM,  people,  JiWfreu.     This  noun  is  of  the  masculine 
gender. 

(3)  Nouns  which  terminate  in  the  nominative  case  of  the  plural 
number  in  a  are  of  the  neuter  gender.     Ex.  Bopom,  gate; 

wood ;  ycrd,  lips,  mouth. 


(    26     ) 

Concerning  the  Declension  of  Compound  Nouns. 

§  47.  In  compound  nouns  the  last  word  alone  is  declined.     Ex. 
MOpexoAei|&,  navigator,  Mopexo^iw,  MOpexoAuy,  &c. 


§  48.  Certain  proper  nouns  have  their  own  peculiar  appositions  : 
Ex.  PnnapA&  «Ib6UHoe  Cepdye,  Richard  Lion-hearted.  In  all  such 
instances  the  proper  name  only  is  declined,  the  noun  or  nouns  in 
apposition  remaining  without  change  :  Ex.  PnHap^o^&  Jbeuttoe 
Cepdiqe,  by  Richard  Lion-hearted;  0  Pflqap^/6  JLteunoe  Cepdi^e, 
about  Richard  Lion-hearted. 

§  49.  The  following  compound  nouns,  which  used  to  be  declined 
separately,  are  now  only  inflected  in  the  latter  word:  —  E[ap&rpaA&, 
Tsar's  City  (name  given  by  the  Russians  to  Constantinople),  I(ap&- 
,  &c.  ;  HoBropOAff,  New  City  (Novgorod;,  HoBropOA#,  &c. 


§  50.  Nouns  substantive,  to  which  is  prefixed  the  word  nod  or 
noJiy  (contracted  from  noMeuua,  half),  have  in  all  the  oblique  cases 
noJiy  :  'Ex.  noJ^eHft  mid-day,  gen.  TLOAJ/AIMI,  dat.  no.i$AH70,  ins. 
uojLyAReMti,prep.  o 


THE  NOUN  ADJECTIVE    (HMH 

§  51.  Nouns  adjective  are  coupled  with  nouns  substantive,  in 
order  to  show  the  quality,  attributes,  and  circumstances  of  the 
object.  Nouns  adjective  agree  with  the  substantives  with  which 
they  are  coupled  in  gender,  number  and  case.  Ex.  xpa6pz>m 
BOHH&,  brave  warrior;  xpa6p&i£  BOHHW,  brave  warriors  ;  xpa6pw#5 
BOHH00&,  of  brave  warriors  ;  GkjiaH  jomaA&,  white  horse  ;  3(MOTa/z 
mnam,  golden  sword  ;  BjifllHM  66meciBO,  local  society  ;  &c. 

§  52.  Nouns  adjective  are  comprised  under  the  following  heads  :  — 

(1)  Qualifying    (KaqecTBennoe),    which    denote    the    quality   or 
property  of  the  several  objects  with  which  they  are  coupled.     Ex. 
xpafipWM,  brave  ;  BBicoKm,  high  ;  Ma^ibiw,  little,  small  ;  &c. 

(2)  Possessive  (npHTflffiaieJBHoe),  which  point  out  either  to  what 
the  object  belongs,  such  as  PoccincKm  Russian,  and  jBBHHbw  per- 
taining to  a  lion,  &c.  ;  or  the  substance  of  which  the  object  is  made, 
or   to   which  it  relates  —  for  example,  SOJOTOW  golden,    KaMene&m, 
of  stone. 

N.B.  —  The  possessive  adjectives  are  formed  from  nouns  substantive. 


(     27     ) 

(3)  Circumstantial  (oScTOSTewibCTBeHHOf),  which  point  to  the  de- 
pendence of  the  object  on  the  circumstances  of  time  and  place.  Ex. 
ceroflHHiiiH&JM  ypoK&,  lesson  of  to-day  ;  Biepammw  06^45,  dinner  of 
yesterday  ;  a^tiim^  66meciBO,  local  society  ;  &c. 


§  53.  Nouns  adjective  have  seven  terminations,  viz.  for  masculine 
gender,  in  biu}  ou,  iu  ;  for  feminine  gender,  in  a/i,  HA  ;  for  neuter 
gender,  in  oe,  ee. 

Ex.  Masc.  cjaBHbzw^  xy^ow  ~\  CHHZW 

Fern.    cASLEHaal  renowned,        xyaa/zl  bad,          C&EHH    blue. 

Neut. 


§  54.  All  nouns  adjective  are  subject  to  changes  of  termination 
in  connection  with  the  ordinary  rules  of  declension.  The  qualifying 
adjectives  are  moreover  influenced  by  changes  of  termination,  con- 
nected with  the  use  of  shortened  (yciqeHH&iw)  forms,  and  with  the 
degrees  of  comparison  (cienea&  cpaBHem;?). 


§  55.  The  shortening  (ycfrieH^)  amounts  to  a  contraction  of  the 
full  termination  of  the  adjective  in  question.  For  example, 
instead  of  BeJLHK^  -an  -oe,  great,  Be.iHK&-a-0  are  the  forms 
used. 

§  56.  Qualifying  adjectives  have,  therefore,  for  every  case  and 
number,  two  distinct  terminations,  viz.  the  full  (uojiRoe)  and  the 
shortened 


§  57.  The  possessive  and  the  circumstantial  adjectives,  on  the 
other  hand,  have  but  the  one  full  termination.  Ex.,  HejiOB-feHecow' 
•an  -oe  human,  6yMaHtH&m  -an,  -oe  made  of  paper,  a^iimitt  -nn  -ee 
belonging  to  this  place. 

Obs.  —  Certain  of  the  possessive  adjectives,  which  are  derived 
from  personal  nouns,  may  have  two  distinct  terminations  ; 
such  as,  — 


The  full,          iiapCKifi  -aa  -oe 


belonging  to 
The  shortened,    ijapeBi  esa  £BO  )  Tsar. 

The  full,         OTEioBCKifi  -aa  -oe") 

or  >  patrimonial. 

The  shortened,    OTDOB^  -osa  -OBO  ) 


.afl  - 


-OBa  -OBO 


belonging  to 
one's  ancestors. 


6paiHifl  -aa-ee 

6paTH0ei  -HHea    [•      fraternal. 
-HHHQ 


{    28    ) 
58.  The  shortened  terminations  of  adjectives  are  as  follows  :  — 

(1)  Of  the  qualifying  adjectives  — 

Singular  Number.  Plural  Number. 

Masc.          Fern.       Neuter.  All  genders. 

In         &,  b.        a,  R.       o,  e.  w,  u. 

Ex.      £o6p5  kind,  £o6pa,  Ao6po,  #o6p&i; 

CHH&  blue,  CHH/?,  CHH/,  CHHW. 

(2)  Of  the  possessive  adjectives  (derived  from  personal  nouns)  — 

eet,  068,  UHV  ;  eea,  oea,  una  ;  eeo,  oeo,  UHO  ;  eew,  oeti,  umi. 

n;ap£ff5,  mpeea,  nap^o, 


3HTHW/J5,  3flTHlf«^,  3STBMWO,  3flTHW«&?. 

§  59.  The  degrees  of  comparison  of  nouns  adjective  denote  the 
various  standards  of  the  quality  or  property  of  an  object.  Ex. 
learned,  yMH/60  or  yMH/&wwm  more  learned,  and  caaibia 
most  learned  ;  icpH&w  black,  HepHfl>£  or  HepHT&mam 
blacker,  and  Bec&Ma  HepH&m  blackest  of  all,  lit.  very  black  ; 
c*ia6wM  weak,  CA&6ri>e  or  cja6/&Mmm  weaker,  and  caMbm  cja6bm 
weakest.  The  degrees  of  comparison  are  three  :  — 

(1)  Positive  (no-iOJKHTeJLHflJz),  which  indicates  the  simple  quality 
or  property  of  an  object,  without  making  any  comparison  between 
it  and  any  other  object  which  may  possess  a  like  quality  or  pro- 
perty.     Ex.   BajKH&m   HHH&  important  rank;    BbicoKa/z  ropa,  high 
mountain  ;  &c. 

(2)  Comparative  (cpaBHHTCJLH^^),  which  intimates,  in  a   greater 
or  less  degree,  the  quality  or  property  of  one  object  as  compared 
with   one    or  more  objects  of  the  same  sort.      Ex.   Bti  nsopEUM 
BaJKH/MMty/o  AO.IJKHOCT&  Heate-in  o«5,  You  have  chosen  a  more  important 
duty   (or  office)  than  he;    9io  CVKHO   nepH/&0    Heate^H    TBO£,    This 
cloth  (is)  blacker  than  thine;  Epaitf  MOW  Bbiuie  Te£&,   My  brother 
(is)  taller  than  thee  ;  &c. 

(3)  Superlative    (upeBOCXOAfl&fl),   which   points  out   the    object 
possessed    of    the   greatest    degree   of    superiority    or    inferiority 
amongst   a   lot   of  objects  of  the  same  kind.     Ex.   On$  qHiaems 

no.ie3Hyw  KHnry,  He  is  reading  a  most  useful  book  ;    BOTT> 
TiepHO(?  CVKH0,  Here  is  the  blackest  cloth  (of  all)  ;  &c. 


(     29    ) 

§  60.  Nouns  Adjective  have  in  the  comparative  degree  two 
distinct  terminations,  viz.  a  full  termination  in  nuwiu  -aa  -ee  and 
aiiwiu  -an  -ee,  and  a  shortened  termination  in  ne,  Jbu.  we,  ue,  we,  wp. 
Ex.  cuAiRibuwitt  stronger,  CIUI>H/&£,  CHIBHT&M;  nyGoHafttitf'tf  deeper, 
TJijftwe  ;  Jieiue  lighter  ;  ihwe  quieter  ;  CAaiu/e  sweeter. 

O&s.  —  The  terminations  ibilmiU  and  ctuium  may  be  used  to 
express  the  superlative  degree,  but  when  so  employed  the 
words  M3»  ecTbxv,  of  all,  must  be  understood.  Ex.  Pocci/? 
ecmb  cKM>ETbuwee  rocy^apciBO  BT>  CBBT/b,  Russia  is  the  most 
powerful  sovereignty  in  the  world. 

§  61.  The  superlative  degree  is  formed  — 

(1)  By  placing  before  the  full  termination  of  either  the 
positive  or  comparative  degree  the  words  —  caMbiu  most,  npe  very. 
Ex.  CaMbm  npiaiH&iw  4CH&,  Most  pleasant  day  ;  CaMa/z  BbicoHawaowz 
ropa,  Highest  mountain  (of  all)  ;  HpeK^cmbiu  qBiTOKS,  Prettiest 
flower. 

(2)  By  placing  before  the  full  termination  of  the  positive 
degree  the  words  eecbMa  extremely,  ouem  very.  Ex.  BecLMa 
noje3Hoe  H3o6p4ieHie,  Extremely  useful  invention;  ()uem 
,  Very  pleasant  meeting. 


(3)  By  prefixing  to  certain  adjectives  of  the  comparative 
degree  the  particle  nau,  very  best.  Ex.  ffauxyvniiu  cnoc66&, 
very  best  method  ;  mufto&e  uoAemoe  4'fejo,  much  the  more  useful 
work. 

§  62.  For  further  intensifying  the  comparative  degree  the 
following  word  can  be  placed  before  the  shortened  termination  of 
that  degree  —  topdado  much.  Ex.  Om  topdsdo  VMH/&<?,  no  iopdsdo 
,  He  (is)  much  more  clever,  but  mucli  worse  than,  &c. 


For  the  purpose  of  detracting  from  the  quality  of  an  adjective 
the  particle  no  (little)  can  be  prefixed  to  the  comparative  degree 
of  the  adjective  in  question.  Ex.  Om  nocnAbRrie  eact,  He  (is)  a 
little  stronger  (than)  you  ;  &c. 

§  63.  The  following  nouns  adjective  have  their  own  peculiar 
forms  of  the  degrees  of  comparison  :  — 


(     30     ) 


great,  in  the 
sense  of  famous, 

great,  in  the 
sense  of  large, 
Mii.ii.iii  small, 

BblCOKJH  tall, 

nusKifi  lower, 

xopomifi  good, 

xyAoU  bad, 

ciapbift  old, 

MO-iOAofi  young,          -\ 

4o.irifi  long, 

KpaiKifl  short,  J 


Comparative. 
Full.  Shortened. 


Superlative. 


66.ibiiiiB, 

Mi'iii.niiii, 

Biiic.miii, 

o  Ham  i  ft, 

jyiiuifi, 

xyAiiiifi, 

CTapiiiniifi, 

nil 


&  6dibiiie, 

&    MeHbUie, 

Bbime, 


Bbicoiattmiu 
enaiaiiraiii. 


xyrce, 
ciapte  &  ciapine, 

MO-IOJKe, 

&  4o.ibine, 


CTapuiifi. 
juaAiniii. 
40JH(aHuiiti. 
KpaTiaaniift. 


§  64.  Qualifying  nouns  adjective  can  be  used  either  in  a 
depreciative  or  softened  (cMariiiTeJBHbm)  sense,  with  either  full  or 
shortened  terminations  ;  or  in  an  augmentative  (ycnjieHHbJw)  form, 
with  either  full  or  shortened  terminations. 


Depreciative  or  Softened. 

f  6tJeobKifl  AOMHKTi,  little  white  house  ; 

1 6'BJOBaTbifl  40MT>,  whitish  house  ; 

(  40M^  (VkienoKT),  the  house  (is)  a  little  white  ; 

V.40MT)  6'LiOBarb,  the  house  (is)  whitish. 


Ex. 


Full  termination 


Shortened  termination 


Augmentative. 

Full  termination  .    .     .     6i>JexOBbKifi  AOMT>,  very  white  house  ; 
Shortened  termination  .     dtJexoneKT)  4010  or  OtJenieHCKi,  the  house  (is)  quite  white. 

§  65.  Certain  nouns  adjective  are  used  in  the  sense  of  appellative 
(HapHuaie.ibHO£)  nouns  substantive.  Ex.  Bi>'i6opH&m,  deputy  (lit. 
one  chosen);  4  acoBo'w,  sentry  ;  rociHH&fl  (KOMHam),  drawing-room  ; 
cwAoma  (KOMHaia),  dining-room;  HiapKoX  roast  meat. 

Again,  other  nouns  adjective  are  converted  into  surnames,  and 
are  used  as  proper  names.  Ex.  TOJCTOM,  Tolstoi;  Ba^ynaHCK/M, 
of  Trans-Danube  ;  &c. 

§  66.  Certain  of  the  qualifying  nouns  adjective  have  no  degrees 
of  comparison  at  all;  for  instance,  niiMow  dumb,  orfenoM  blind, 
jKCHaT&r^  married  ;  and  such  other  adjectives  the  meaning  of  which 
will  not  admit  of  an  increasing  or  diminishing  of  their  peculiar 
significations. 


67.  To  many  adjectives  which  denote  quality  of  a  good  kind 


(    31     ) 

the  particles  He  not,  and  6es  without,  can  be  prefixed.  This 
process  has  the  effect  of  giving-  to  the  adjectives  so  treated  a  con- 
trary signification  to  that  which  they  previously  held.  Ex.  He- 
M  ^agreeable,  w^HHCT&m  unclean,  fascEJLbmiu  powerless,  &c. 
O&s.  —  The  particle  ties,  which  is  called  a  preposition,  signifies 
deprivation,  or  the  want  of  possession  of  anything,  no  matter 
what.  Hence  many  adjectives  which  primarily  indicate  bad 
qualities  when  joined  with  this  particle  or  preposition,  come 
to  express  on  the  other  hand  good  qualities.  Ex. 
harmless,  fiesonacRbiu  safe,  &c. 


§  68.  Certain  nouns  adjective,  which  are  derived  from  one  and 
the  same  word,  may,  according  to  their  meaning,  appear  in  two 
forms,  viz.  be  either  possessive  or  qualifying  adjectives.  Ex.  BCMHOM, 
terrestrial,  seio/wo^,  earthern,  (from  36MJi£)',  seMMUucmbtu,  earthy; 
30.1  OTOM,  golden,  WJiomucmbiii,  auriferous,  (from  30Mmo). 

§  69.  The  following  is  the  table  of  the  declensions  of  nouns 
adjective  with  full  terminations  :  — 

Singular  Number. 


Cases. 

Masc.    Gender. 

Fern.  Gender. 

Neuter  Gender. 

N.  &  V.    H.  3. 

biii,  oii,  iii,  mil. 

an,  an. 

oe,  ee. 

G.           P. 

aro,  aro. 

oii,  eii. 

aro,  aro. 

D.          4- 

OMy,  emy. 

oil,  cii. 

OMy,  eMy. 

A.           B. 

(      aro,  arc.       ") 
(  MH,  ofl,  iii,  eia.  ) 

yro,  row. 

(      aro,  aro.      "£ 
(        oe,  ee.       j 

I.           T. 

bIMl>,  BMl. 

oro,  OH,   ero,  efl. 

MM!.,     HM'Ii. 

P.          H. 

OMI,  esn,. 

e8. 

OM'I.,     CM'L. 

Plural  Number. 


Cases. 

Masc.   Gender. 

Fern.    Gender. 

Neuter  Gender. 

N.&V.    H.  3. 

Lie,   ie. 

bia,    in. 

Mii,  ia. 

G.          P. 

uix,  im>. 

I.IX'L,    IIXT>. 

HXT>,    HXl. 

D.          A- 

WM^,    HM^. 

I.IM'f>,     IIM't) 

I.IM'I,,    UM'f.. 

A.          B. 

C     bixi,  HXI      1 
^       we,   ie.       > 

f       WXl,  HXl.       ^ 

i,       wa,  ia.       j 

bie,  ia. 

I.            T. 

UMQ,  iniii. 

LIMH,    IIMII. 

I.IMIK     IIMII. 

p.       n. 

MX  I,    HXl. 

blXl,    HXl. 

blXl,    0X1. 

EXAMPLES  OF  THE  DECLENSION  OF  NOUNS  ADJECTIVE. 
With  an  Animate  Object  of  the  Masculine  Gender. 


Cases. 


Singular  Number. 


H.  3.. 

N.&  V. 

cii.ii.ni.iii  ope.n>, 
powerful  eagle. 

P. 
G. 

CHjBearo  opja, 
of  a  powerful  eagle. 

4- 
D. 

CHJiBHOMy  op-iy", 
to  a  powerful  eagle. 

B. 
A. 

co-iBnaro  opja, 
powerful  eagle. 

T. 
I. 

n. 
p. 

CIUBHblMl  OPJOMT., 

by  a  powerful  eagle. 

f                                r 

0  CHJBHOMT.  Op.lt, 

about  a  powerful  eagle. 

Plural  Number. 

CHJBHBie  Op.IbI, 
powerful  eagles. 


CHJBHWXl 

of  powerful  eagles. 


CHJBHMMX 

to  powerful  eagles. 

CHJbHblXl  Op.lOBT>, 

powerful  eagles. 


b}f  powerful  eagles. 


0  CHJBFibixi)  op^ax^, 
about  powerful  eii^les. 

1  O 


With  an  Inanimate  Object  of  the  Feminine  Ge-nder. 

Cases.  Singular  Number. 

pyccKia    H36bi, 
Russian  huts. 


H.  3. 

N.&  V. 

pyccuaa   036a, 
Russian    hut. 

P. 
G. 

pycCKoft  0s6bi, 
of  a   Russian   hut. 

4- 
D. 

pycCKOii  03(VB, 
to   a   Russian    hut. 

B. 
A. 

pyccnyio  0s6y, 
Russian   hut. 

T. 
I. 

pyCCKOK)    0360H), 
with   a  Russian   hi 

n. 


j  BT>    pyCCKOfi 

in   a   Russian  hut. 


PyCCKHXl 

of   Russian   huts. 


to    Russian   huts. 

pyccKia   H36bi, 
Russian   huts. 

PyCCKHMH    03(5aM0, 

with    Russian   huts. 
Bl   p^CCK0Xl    H36aXT>, 

in  Russian  huts. 


Cases. 

H.  3. 

N.&V. 

P. 
G. 

4- 
D. 

B. 
A. 

T. 
I. 

n. 

p. 


With   an   Inanimate 
Singular  Number. 


Object  of  the   Neuter   Gender. 

Plural  Number. 


MtCTO, 

former   place. 


M*BCTa, 

of  a   former   place. 

npe;KneMy  Mtciy, 
to   a  former  place. 


former  place. 

npeJKHHJTb    M-ECTOMT., 

by  a  former  place. 


na 


former   places. 


WBCTT,, 

of  former   places. 


on  a  former  place. 


MtCTHM'B, 

to   former  places. 

npe/KHia   M-fecia, 
former    places. 

npe*'B0MH     MtCTHM0, 

by   former   places. 

Ha  npe'/KHox'B  wfeciaxx, 
on  former  places. 


With  an  Animate  Object  of  the  Masculine  Gender. 


Cases. 


Singular  Number. 


H.  3. 

N.&V. 

AoCpbiii  6parb, 
kind  brother. 

P. 
G. 

4o6paro  6pata, 
of  a  kind  brother. 

4- 
D. 

4<56pOMy  6paty, 
to  a  kind  brother. 

B. 
A. 

4o6paro  tfpara, 
kind  brother. 

T. 
I. 

4o6pUMi  CpaiOMT), 
by  a  kind  brother. 

n. 
p. 

o  4o6pOMi  Opart, 
about  a  kind  broth 

Plural  Number. 


kind  brothers. 


CpaTbCBl, 

of  kind  brothers. 


to  kind  brothers. 

AoOpux-b  6paTb 
kind  brothers. 


by  kind  brothers. 

0  jofipuxi.  OparbfixT,, 
about  kind  brothers. 


Cases. 


With  an  Animate  Object  of  the  Feminine  Gender. 


Singular  Number. 


n.  3 

N.&V. 

4<5<5pafl  cecipS, 
a  kind  sister. 

P. 
G. 

466pofi  cecrpft, 
of  a  kind  sister. 

4- 
D. 

4o6pofi  cecipt, 
to   a  kind  sister. 

B. 

A. 

Ao6py»  cecip^, 
kind  sister. 

T. 
I. 

Adoporo  cectporo, 
by  a  kind  sister. 

P. 
P. 

o  466poti  cecxp-fe, 
about  a  kind  sis 

Plural  Number. 


cecipw, 
kind  sisters. 


ceciepi, 
of  kind  sisters. 


to  kind  sisters. 


cecxepi, 
kind  sisters. 


cecipaiaa, 
by  kind  sisters. 


o  AoflpMxt  cecipaxi, 
about  kind  sisters. 


Cases. 

H.  3. 

N.  &  V. 

P. 
G. 

4. 
D. 

B. 
A. 

T. 
I. 


P. 


With  an  Inanimate  Object  of  the  Neuter  Gender. 


Singular   Number. 


joopoe 
kind  deed. 


4o6paro 

of  a  kind  deed. 


to  a  kind  deed. 


A<5(5poe 
kind  deed. 


by  a  kind  deed. 


0  4d6pOMi 

about  a  kind  deed. 


Plural   Number. 

4ofipblfl  /Vkia, 
kind  deeds. 

4o6pwxi  AfaT,. 
of  kind  deeds. 

4odpbiMi  4%jdv&, 
to  kind  deeds. 


kind  deeds. 

4o(5pbiMH  4f..iaMH, 
by  kind  deeds. 

0  4o(5pMXi  4-S.iaxi, 
about  kind  deeds. 


With  an  Inanimate  Object  of  the  Masculine  Gender. 


Cases. 

Singular  Number. 

H.  3. 

N&V. 

upoc.Toii  KaMent., 
ordinary  stone. 

P. 
G. 

npociaro  KaMHS, 
of  ordinary  stone. 

4- 
D. 

UpOCTOMy  KaMHK), 

to  ordinary  stone. 

B. 

A. 

npocTdii  KaMenb, 
ordinary  stone. 

T. 
1. 

npOCTUM'b  KUMHCMX, 

by  ordinary  stone. 

II. 
P. 

0  IIpOCTOMT>  KaMIJ'6, 

about  ordinary  ston< 

Plural  Number. 


KUMBH, 

ordinary  stones. 


npocTbixi 

of  ordinary  stones. 

npOCTLIMT)  KaMHflM-b, 

to  ordinary  stones. 


npocTbie 
ordinary  stones. 

npOCIblMH  KaMIlflMH, 

by  ordinary  stones. 

0  UpOCTblXT)  KaMHHXT., 

about  ordinary  stones. 


With  an  Inanimate  Object  of  the  Feminine  Gender. 


Cases. 


Singular  Number. 


n.  3. 

N&V. 

npociaa  uocib, 
common  bone. 

P. 
G. 

DPOCTOH  KOCTU, 

of  common  bone. 

4. 
D. 

npocidfi  KOCTH, 
to  common  bone. 

B. 
A. 

npOCTyK)  KOCTb, 

common  bone. 

T. 
I. 

npOCTOH)  KOCTbK), 

by  common  bone. 

n. 

P. 

o  npocT<5fi  K<5cTU, 
about  common  bone. 

Plural  Number. 

npocTbia  KOCTH, 
common  bones. 

npocTbixi  Kociefi, 
of  coininou  bones. 

npOCTblMT>    KOCTHMb, 
to  common   bones. 

DpOCIblfl  KOCTH, 
common  bones. 

DpOCTblMII  KOCTHMH, 

by  common  bones. 

o  npocibixi  KOCTax^, 
about  common  bones. 


With  an  Inanimate  Object  of  the  Neuter  Gender. 


Cases. 

H.  3. 

N.&  V. 

P. 
G. 

A- 
D. 

B. 
A. 

T. 
I. 

n. 

P. 


Singular   Number. 

npocT<5e  paci^Hie, 
a  common  plant. 


npociaro 

of  a  common  plant. 

npocidMy  pacieniio, 
to  a  common  plant. 

npocT<5e  pacieHie, 
a  common  plant. 

npocibiMi  pacie'uieM'b. 
by  a  common  plant. 

o  npocioMT)  pacTcniH, 
about  a  common  plant. 


Plural  Number. 

ijpocTbia  pacieHifl, 
common  plants. 

npocibixi  pacTeniii, 
of  common  plants. 

npocibiMi  pacieniflMi, 
to  common  plants. 

npocibifl  pacteoifl, 
common  plants. 


npocibiMH 

by  common  plants. 

o  npocTbixT>  pacTeuiflX"b, 
about  common  plants. 


With  an  Inanimate  Object  of  the  Masculine  Gender. 


Cases. 

H.  3. 

N.  &  V. 

P. 
G. 

4. 
D. 

B. 

A. 

T. 
I. 

n. 
P. 


f&ngular  Number, 

.itTiiiii  4<Mib, 
summer  day. 


4HH. 
of  a  summer  day. 


4B», 
to  a  summer  day, 


4BBB, 
summer  day. 

J-STHHMI  ,yu:M'b, 
by  a  summer  day. 

o  .itTiieiTB  4Ht, 
about  a  summer  day. 


Plural  Number. 


4BH, 
summer  days. 


of  summer  days. 


summer  days. 


4IIHMH, 

by  summer  days. 

0  .liiTHUX'I,  4IUIX'b, 

about  summer  days. 


Cases. 


With  an  Inanimate  Object  of  the  Feminine  Gender. 


Singular  Number. 


H.  3. 

.riiinaa  no'ib, 

N.  &V. 

summer   night. 

P. 

J'STHCH  HOMU, 

G. 

of  a  summer  night. 

4- 

.rfcTiirii   Ho-JH, 

D. 

to  a  summer  night 

B. 

r 
.ll»TBK>ID  BOHb, 

A. 

summer  night 

T. 

r                    , 
JCfiTBeH)  BOlbH), 

I. 

by  a  summer  night. 

/             f 

n. 

0  Jl1JTB<}fi  HOHB, 

p. 

about  a  summer  nig 

Plural  Numter. 

.IJ.TllJJI    HOHH, 

summer  nights. 

.liiiinixi,  noiea, 
of  summer  nights. 

J'tTHHM'b    HOHflMl, 

to  summer  nihis. 


Hu'IlI. 

summer  nights. 

Jt»TIIHMH  HOll;niII, 

by  summer  niglits. 

O  JtTHHXT,  HOlaXX, 

about  summer  lights. 


Cases. 

H.  3. 

N.&V. 

P. 
G. 

4- 
D. 

B. 
A. 

T. 
I. 

n. 
p. 


With  an  Inanimate  Object  of  the  Neuter  Gender. 


Singular  Number. 

j-fcTHee  OAtiuo, 
summer  coverlet. 

jtiHaro  OAtiua, 

of  a  summer  coverlet. 


to  a  summer  covelet. 


O4i>fl.io, 
summer  coverlet. 


with  a  summer  coverlet. 

o  -itTHeMi  04ta.i1;, 

about  a  summer  coverlet. 


Plural  Number. 


summer  coverlets. 


.lliTHHXT. 

of  summer  coverltts. 


to  summer  coverlets. 

JtTHia  04*a^a, 
summer  coverlets. 


with  summer  coverlets. 


about  summer  coverlets. 


§  70.  Certain  Possessive  Adjectives  which  are  derived  from 
animate  objects,  and  which  terminate  in  itt,  &/z,  i>e,  such  as  0-ieHW 
-&&  -be,  of  a  deer,  are  declined  in  the  following  manner  : — 


Cases. 

N.&V.  H.3. 
G.     P. 


D. 
A. 
I. 
P. 


B. 
T. 

n. 


Singular  Number. 
Masc.  Termination.       Fern.  Termination. 

OilHM. 

0-ieHbHro. 
o-i^Hbeiuy. 
o.ieHift. 

oi&rfcun. 


0-ieHbeMy. 

O.u'HbR). 


oO'b  o.ienbeii. 
Belonging  to  a  deer. 


Plural  Number. 


Cases. 

Masc.  Termination. 

Fern.  Termi: 

N.&V.  H.3. 

0.1CIILH. 

o.icubn. 

G.     P. 

O.I£HHXT>. 

O.It'HbIIXT>. 

D.     A. 

o.ieiibn. 

O.lOHbHMX. 

A.     B. 

OJCHbH. 

O.ienbH. 

I.       T. 

o.ieubiiMii. 

O.lt'HbllMn. 

p.    n. 

061,  O.I^IIbHXl. 

061  o.i^nbH 

Neuter  Termination. 

o.u'ubc. 
cueiibJiro. 


O.Il'HLIIM'L. 

od>  O.H'HLCMI. 


Neuter  Termination. 

O.K'HbH. 

OJCHbHXl. 

O.ICHLHM'b. 

0.1(5HblI. 

OI^HbHMH. 


below. 


The  Possessive  Adjective  BOHJ/U,  Divine,  is  declined  as 


Singular  Number. 

Plural  Numbei  . 

Cases. 

Masculine.           Feminine. 

Neuter. 

All  Gender" 

N.&V.  H.3. 

EoHtiii.                   E<5%ifl. 

EoJKie. 

Ed/Kin. 

G.      P. 

EoHtifl.                   EoJKiett. 

Ed/Kia. 

EdHviBXi. 

D.    4. 

Bowiio.                  Bdaiieii. 

Ed»UK). 

EdJKlHMT). 

A.      B. 

EdiKiii.                  E(5HJiio. 

Ed;Kie. 

Ed/Kin. 

I.       T. 

EdJKiHMI.                     BoJHiCK). 

EdaciHMi. 

Ed/KiHMH. 

P.     H. 

0  Ed>KieMX.            0  Edfltiefi. 

OEoJKiCMi. 

0  EoJKinxi. 

§  72.  The  following  is  a  table  showing  the  several  forms  of  the 
shortened  terminations  of  possessive  nouns  adjective : — 


Singular   Number. 

Plural  Numbei\ 

Cases. 

Masculine. 

Feminine. 

Neuter. 

All   Genders. 

N.&V.  H  3 

T>,      b, 

a,     a, 

o,     e, 

LI,            H. 

G.         P. 

a,     a, 

oii,     eft, 

a,      a, 

LIXT.,      BX'b. 

D.        4. 

V         HI 

oft,     eft, 

y,    », 

LlMl,      IIM'L. 

A.         B. 

j  a,     n,  j 

y,    », 

o,     e, 

C  MXX,       HXl.  ") 
(.     M,            H.     } 

I.         T. 

MMI.,    1IMI,, 

OH),     e», 

MMI,,       IIM1,, 

I.IMII,       IIM1I. 

P.         D. 

OMl,   CMl, 

oft,     eft. 

OMX,        CHI, 

LIXl,       HX'L. 

Examples  of  the  declensions  of  Nouns  Adjective  with  shortened  ter- 
minations.    Possessive  adjectives  derived  from  personal  nouns  (vide 

§  58,  N°.  2). 

Singular  Number. 


Cases. 

Masculine  Gender. 

Feminine  Gender. 

Neuter   Gender. 

N.  &  V.  H.  3 

OiqdBi, 

CpaiBHBa, 

cecipaBO. 

G.        P. 

OTqoBa, 

6paTBHBOfi, 

cecrpaaa. 

D.        4. 

OTqoBy, 

CpaTiiiuion, 

cecrpaBy. 

C"  OTDOBa.  ) 

A.         B. 

\                            V 

(  OTMOBl,  ) 

CpaiBHBy, 

cecipaBO. 

I.          T. 

OTU,OBLIM'b, 

fipaTBIIBOIO, 

cecipuBbiMi. 

p.      n. 

O0l  OTUOBOMl, 

0  OpaTBHHOii, 

o  cecxpaaoMi. 

Of  the  father. 

Of  the  brother. 

Of  the  sister. 

Plural  Number. 

Cases. 

Masculine  Gender. 

Feminuie  Gender. 

Neuter  Gender. 

N.&V.   fl.  3. 

OTHOBLI, 

6paTiiniiM, 

cecipaBbi. 

G.       P. 

OTqdBWXl, 

CpaTBOBblXl, 

Ce'CTpBBMXl. 

D.       4- 

OTUdBLIMl, 

6paTHHin,nri>, 

ce'crpii  m,i  ML. 

A.       B. 

(  otqoBbixi,  ") 

(^  OTUOBH,       ) 

f  fipdiBaBbixi,  ") 

fcecxpHUbixi.  ") 

(_  Ce'CTpBBW.        ) 

I.      T. 

OTqoBLIMH, 

fipaTHIIIILIMII, 

Ce'CTpBBblMH. 

p.     n- 

o6i>  orqcBbixi, 

0  CpUTBHULIXl, 

0  Ce'CTpBBblX'b. 

Singular  Number. 

Cases. 

Masculine   Gender. 

Feminine  Gender.             Neuter   Gender. 

N.&V.  H.  3. 

HiiKii.iinn,  .'Oin,,. 

EKaTCpiiiniiia  4a'ia, 

Hapunbino  c«Jo. 

G.      P. 

HiiKo.iiiiia   41111, 

Ef;aTCpiinniioii  Aa-ni, 

HapuuLina  cc.ia. 

D.       4- 

HiiKdiiiny  4BEO, 

EitaTepHHuiioii  ^ait, 

I^apuqbiHy  cejy. 

A.       B. 

HsiKo.iinrb    46Bb, 

EKaiepaBHBy  4aiy, 

Hapl'mi'IMO  rc.io. 

I.        T. 

HlIKO.llIHLIM'b    Alie.M'b, 

EKaiepHBiiBOK)  Aa4eio, 

HapaqwiibiMi  CC.IOMI. 

P.      n. 

0     HllKd.IIIIIOM  I,  4B'B, 

in,  Ei;aTCpiiiuiiioii  .Ta-ili, 

o  IJapiiqbiHOMx  CGJ-B. 

St.  Nicholas's  day. 

Catherine's  country-  hou  so 

.  Tsarina's  1  village. 

1  Title  of  the  Russian  Empress.    Trans. 


(    38    ) 

The  plural  of  the  three  last  examples  is  according  to  those  given 
in  the  table  above. 

Obs. — Qualifying  nouns  adjective  with  shortened  terminations 
are  inflected  only  in  poetry, 

Ex.    TaMi  Symz/tfws1  cime  Mope 

There       rages          the  blue    sea, 
H    £OH#y  2  40   CHH/Z   MOp/J 
I    will  go       to  the  blue  sea. 

Qo£iB*u0ai 8  CHHW  Mop/o 

I  will  admire      the  blue  sea. 

IIor.iflafcy4  na  cime  Mope 

I  will  gaze      on  the  blue   sea. 

§  73.  It  is  especially  necessary  to  observe  the  following  rules  for 
nouns  adjective  : — 

(1)  To  insure  the  agreement  of  nouns  adjective  with  nouns  sub- 
stantive in  gender,  number  and  case,  the  nominative  case,  plural,  of 
the  adjective  in  question  must,  if  the  substantive  is  of  the  masculine 
gender,  always  terminate  in  e.     Similarly,  if  the  substantive  is  of 
the  feminine  or  neuter  gender,  the  nominative  case,  plural,  of  the 
adjective  will  terminate  in  n.     Ex.  XpaSpbitf  BOHHW  brave  warriors, 
from   BOHH5 ;    Crkibi/z  crfcn&i  white  walls,  from  crfeHa ;  cnaU  creiua 
blue  glasses,  from  cieiuo. 

(2)  With  regard  to  the  adjective  Eomu  Divine,  the  nominative 
case,  plural,  terminates    (for  all  genders)  in  u.     Ex.  EojKm  XpaM&i 
God's  temples,   from  xpaM5 ;  KOHCZ'U  IJepKBM  God's  churches,  from 
uepKOB&  ;  EoiKiw  C03jdflz;&  God's  creatures,  from  C034aiii£. 

(3)  Adjectives  derived  from  animate  nouns,  and  which  ter- 
minate in  iit,  have  in  the  nominative  case  of  the  plural  number  &u 
(for  all  genders).    Ex.  (XieB&M  pora,  horns  of  a  deer;  Me^B'fciK&M  uiyo&j, 
bearskin  coats;    DTHH&U  rfilttja,  birds'  nests. 

(4)  Nouns  adjective  of  the  masculine  gender  terminate  in  ou 
only    when   the  accent   lies  on  the  ante-penultimate   letter.     Ex. 
xvflow   bad,    H^MOU  dumb,   &c.     When  the  accent   is   not   on  the 
ante-penultimate   letter   or    syllable,  adjectives  of  the   masculine 
gender    terminate    in    biu    or    iu.      Ex.    ^oSp&m    kind, 

great,  &c. 


1  Present  tense  of  6ynieBaTb.     Trans.          8  Future  tense  of  no^HBHTbca      Tram. 

2  Future  tense  of  4011410.     Tram.  *  Future  tense  of  norja^tib.     Trans. 


(    39    ) 


(5)  Nouns  adjective  which  terminate  in  niu  have  in  the  genitive 
case,  singular,  the  termination  mo,  and  are  declined  according  to 
the  table  of  nouns  adjective  terminating  in  niu  (  Vide  §  69).  Ex. 
cviHiu  blue,  &c.  All  other  nouns  adjective  ending  in  iu  have  in 
the  following  cases  of  the  singular  number  the  termination  here 
specified  :  —  In  the  genitive  case  aio,  in  the  dative  OMI/,  in  the 
instrumental  UMti,  in  the  prepositional  OMV.  In  the  plural  number, 
however,  they  are  declined  like  adjectives  which  terminate  in  niu. 
The  following  is  an  instance  of  this  rule  :  —  BBICOIWW  high,  &c. 


The  Noun  of  Number  or  Numeral. 


§  74.    The   numerals   indicate  the  quantity  or  number  of  the 
objects  spoken  of.    Ex.  v^unt  one,  nepBW^  first,  flibjKHHfl  dozen,  &c. 


§75.  Numerals  are  divided  into  — 

(1)  Cardinal  (KO.iHiecTBeflHOtf),  or  those  which  point  out  the 
number  of  the  objects,  by  answering  to  the  question  CKO.IBKO  ? 
How  many  ?  Ans.  OAHHT>  one,  4Ba  two,  &c. 

(£)  Ordinal  (nopaflKOBoe),  or  those  which  determine  the  sequence 
or  order  in  which  one  object  shall  follow  another.  The  ordinals 
answer  to  the  question  Koiopww  ?  Which  ?  Ans.  IlepB&M  first,  &c. 

Table  of  the  Russian  Numerals. 

Cardinal.  Ordinal. 


OJHHI,  masc. 
o.jiia,  fern. 
04116,  neut. 

04HH,  tnasc.  cfc  »«M£ 
04  Ht,  /em. 


C  sing. 


.      / 
\ 


» 


twasc. 
an,  ye7». 
oe,  wewi. 

we,  masc. 
bin,  fern,  t 


neut. 


sing. 


Plur' 


gen. 

5) 


ipn, 


iniib 


ceMb, 

BOCeMb 


3 

4 
5 

6 

7 

8 

9 
10 


-La  -fce  -LH, 
HeTBepiwii  -aa  -oe  -tie  -LW, 
nHTMii,  &c. 
inecioft,  &c. 
ce/itMdfi,  &c. 

BOCbMOli,  &C. 

,  &c. 

ii,  &c. 

&c. 
iii,  &c. 


1st. 


2nd. 

3rd. 

4th. 

5th. 

6th. 

7th. 

8th. 

9th. 
10th. 
llth. 
12th. 


cdpOKi, 


Cardinal  Numbers  (continued). 

Tpnnu,wiTb,  13 

14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 

5a4qaTb-04Hfli,  &c.  21,  &c. 

30 


40 
50 
CO 
70 

80 
90 
100 
200 
300 
400- 
500 
600 
700 
800 
900 


BOCCMbAGCflTl, 

AGBflHOCTO, 

CTO, 


Tpacia, 


mecTbco'Ti, 


BOCCMbCdTl, 


Tbicaia, 


1000 
2000 
10,000 
100,000 
1,000,000 
2,000,000 
Tb'icaia  MH-uioHOBi,     1000,000,000 
(T. e.  MH.iiap,vb)        (i.  e.  milliard) 
1,000,000,000 


CTO  TbICflHT>, 

SIH.I.lidHT>, 


Ordinal  Numbers  (continued). 

i,  &c.  13th. 

i,  &c.  14th. 

i,  &c.  15th. 

'«,  &c.  16th. 

ft,  &c.  17th. 

*,  &c.  18th. 

*>  &c.  19th. 

(ii,  &c.  20th. 

lii,  &c.  21st,  &c. 

30th. 

lii,  &c.  31st,  &c. 

copOKOBofl,  &c.  40th. 

'H,  &c.  41st,  &c. 

50th. 

i,  &c.  51st,  &c. 

iuecTH4ecaTbiii,  &c.  60th. 

inecTb4ecaT^-aepBLiii,  &c.  61st,  &c. 

ceMH4ecaTbifl,  70th. 

ceMb4ecaTi»-nepBbifl,  &c.  71st  &c. 

BOCbMH4ecaTbiii,  &c.  80th. 

Boce.Mb4ecaTb-nepBbiii,  &c.  81st,  &c. 

4eBHHOCTblfi,  &C.  90tll. 

4eBae6cTO-nepBbiii,  &c.  91st,  <fcc. 

coibifl,  «fec.  100th. 

CTO-n^pBbifi,  &c.  101st,  &c. 

4Byxi-coTbiii,  &c.  200th. 

4BicTH-ncpBbifl,  &c.  201st,  &c. 

B,  &c.  300th. 

i,  &c.  301st,  &e. 

i,  &c.  400th. 

leiupecia  nepBbiH,  &c.  401st,  &c. 

i,  &c.  500th. 

i,  &c.  501st,  &c. 

i,  &c.  600th. 

mecTbcoTi.  nepsbifl,  <fec.  601st,  &c. 

ceMH-coibifl,  &c.  700th. 

ceMbcoTT)  nepsbifi,  &c.  701st,  &c. 

BOCbMH-COTblfi,  &C.  SOOth. 

BoccMbcoii  nepBbiii,  &c.  801st,  &c. 

4eBaTH-coTbifi,  &c.  900th. 

4eBaTbc6iTi  nepBbiii,  &c.  901st,  &c. 

Tbicaqebifl,  &c.  1000th,  &c. 

4Byxi-Tbica4HbiB,  &c.  2000th,  &c. 

4ecaiH-Tb'icaHFibia,  &c.  10,000th,  &c. 

CTO-TbicaHBbift,  &c.  100.000th,  &c. 

MHJJiOHHblH,  &C.  1000,000th,  &C. 

4Byxx-MH.uioHbiH,  &c.  2000,000th,  &c. 
Tbicaie  MHJJiouHbifi,     1000,000,000th,  &c. 

6H.i.ii6HHbiii,  &c.          1,000,000,000th,  &c. 


Fractional  Numerals. 

HOJOBHIia, 

Tpeib, 


ocbMyxa  or  ocbMyiima,  J 

no.ixopa,  1 J 

nojxpexba,  2J 

nojiexBepia,  3J 


Circumstantial  Numerals, 

other. 
last. 


Proportional  Numerals. 

double. 

Tpoi'moft,  treble. 

leiBepuoB,  quadruple. 

or  CTOpainbiii,      centuple. 


ipoe, 
iii&xepo,      Aecaiepo. 


Collective  Numerals. 

EflTCpO, 


Sets  of  Two,  &c.,  &c. 
napa   pair,    66a   both,   ABofiKa  two, 


three,  nnioK'b  five, 
ten,  4K);i;unu  dozen,  and  IIO 
half  dozen  ;  ABU  ^ecaiKa  score, 
hundred. 


§  76.  To  the  class  of  cardinals  belong  — 

(1)  Collective    (co6HpaTej&H0e)     numerals,  such  as   nap#  pair, 
ipoHM  triplet,  woe  set  of  two,  66#  both,  flKMHHa  dozen,  &c. 

(2)  Fractional  (woftuoe),  such  as  HeTBepi&  quarter, 
half,  no^TOpa  one-and-a-half,  &c. 


§  77.  Numerals,  according  to  their  composition,  can  be  either  — 

(1)  Simple  (npocroi),  or  such  as  are  formed  from  one  primary 
word  ;  for  instance,  flBfl,  ipw,  nepBbm,  &rc. 

(2)  Compound  (cJOJKHOe),  or  such  as  are  made  up  of  two  or  more 
words:  p/&-H£umaT&  (4B/&-Ha-£ecaT&)  twelve,  naT&-4ecaiff,  fifty;  cro- 
nepB&m,  hundred  (and)  first;  &c. 

§  78.  The  cardinal  numerals  are  declined  like  nouns  substantive, 
and  the  ordinal  like  nouns  adjective  ending  in  &m  and  ou.  Tpeiiw 
third,  is  declined  after  the  manner  of  nouns  adjective  terminating 
in  iu,  which  are  derived  from  animate  nouns.  (Fide  §  70). 

§  79.   The  ordinal  numeral  nepB&iw,  when  used  in  the  sense  of 
Jif  qmrn  best,  or  oufrrabiu  excellent,  has  degrees  of  comparison— 
,  nepB/6wmm,  caM&m 


§  80.   The   numerals   enuRbiu   sole,   ABOaKm    two-fold, 
ternary,   and    the   like,   have   the   meaning   of  qualifying   nouns 
adjective,  and  are  declined  as  nouns  adjective. 


(    42    ) 

81.  The  declension  of  the  cardinal  numerals  is  as  follows  : 
Singular  Number.  Plural  Number. 


Cases. 

N.  H. 

G.  P. 

D.  4- 

A.  B. 

I.  T. 

P.  H. 


Masc. 


Fern. 


OAHOFO, 

OABOMy, 


onflow, 


Neut. 

OABO. 

OABOro. 

OABOMy. 

OABO. 

OABHSTb. 


Masc.  &  Neut. 
OAHH, 

OABHXl, 
04BHMT>, 


Fern. 

OABt. 
OAB-fcX-b. 


C  OABH, 

OABHMH, 

061 


one. 


Cases. 

Masc.  &  Neut.             Fern. 

All  Genders. 

N.     H. 

Asa,                        AB*. 

TP'B, 

leibipc. 

G.     P. 

AByxt,                    AByxi,. 

ipexi, 

Heiwpex^. 

D.     A. 

AByM-b,                   ABYMI. 

Tpe'MT), 

HeibipeMT,. 

A.     B. 

(.  ABa,                       AB*.     j 

("  ipexT>, 

(TPH, 

leiwpe.        ) 

I.      T. 

ABJMfl,                           AByMfl. 

ipeMa, 

leibipbMa. 

P.     D. 

o  AByn.,               o  AByxi. 

0  Tpexi, 

o  Heibipexii. 

two. 

three. 

four. 

Cases.         All  Genders. 

All  Genders. 

All  Genders. 

All  Genders. 

N.     H.               naib. 

BOCCMb. 

OAMBHa^qaTb. 

copOKi. 

G.     P.               nflTH. 

OCbMH. 

O^HBBaAUaTH. 

copOKa. 

D.     4.              naie. 

OCbMH. 

OAHBBaAqaiH. 

copOKd. 

A.     B.               naib. 

BOCeMb. 

OAHBHa^EiaTb. 

COPOKI. 

I.     T.               naibro. 

OCeMbK). 

OAHBBaAB,aTbK>. 

copOKa. 

P.       II.                0  DflTU. 

0  BOCbMH. 

apB  OAHBBajqaiH. 

o  copoKa. 

five. 

eight. 

eleven. 

forty. 

Cases.         All  Genders. 

All  Genders. 

All  Genders. 

All  Genders. 

N.     H.         nflTbAecarb. 

CTO. 

ABtCTH. 

naTb-coYt. 

G.     P.         nflTMAecaiH. 

era. 

AByXT>-COTl. 

BaTH-COT^. 

D.      4              UflTHAeCflTH. 

ciy,  cia. 

ABVMX-CTaMX. 

n/ITH-CTdMX. 

A.     B.         naibAecflTi. 

CTO. 

AB-BCTH. 

naib-corb. 

I.     T.          naiHOAecHTbio. 

cia. 

ABysia-CTaMH. 

naibio-CTaMH. 

P.     n.      o  nHTHflecaTH. 

o  era. 

Wb  AByXT.-CTaXT>. 

o  naTH-craxi. 

fifty. 

a  hundred. 

two  hundred. 

five  hundred. 

(    43    ) 


Cases. 

N.  H. 

G.  P. 

D.  4. 

A.  B. 

I.  T. 

p.  n. 


Singular  Number. 

Plural  Number. 

All  Genders. 

All  Genders. 

TucaiH, 

T&Cflll;, 

TLICfllH. 
T&CH'Il. 

•iMnn;uri>. 

TUCfliew, 

T&CfliaMH. 

thousand. 


When  before  the  genitive,  dative,  and  prepositional 
cases  of  tfoceMb,  prepositions  terminating  with  a  vowel 
are  used,  in  place  of  OCLMH  it  is  usual  to  write  06cbMH. 
Ex.  y  06cbMH  yHeHHKo'tftf,  with  eight  pupils  ; 


,  for  eight  soldiers  ;   o  06cbMn   KHiir0#5, 


books. 


eight 


.  —  The  dative  case  of  the  numerals  copOKi>  and  CTO,  when 
used  with  the  preposition  no  up  to,  terminates  in  y,  and 
not  in  a.  Ex.  Hait  £a.iH  no  cry  py6.iew,  They  gave  them 
100  roubles  each. 


§  82.  HlecTfr  (6),  CCM&  (7),  ^eBais  (9),  and  ^ecfli&  (10),  are 
declined  like  nai&  (5);  4BinaAuai&  (12),  TpimaAuaT&  (13),  Heiwp- 
(14),  namaAuaT&  (15),  inecTHa^aaTft  (16),  ceMHa(nnai&  (17), 
(18),  4eB}ITHa4^aT6  (19),  ABa#aaT&  (20)  and  TpKA^aTft 
(30),likeo^HnaAuaT&  (11)  ;  mecTb^ecaTS  (60),  and  ceMb^ec/iTS  (70),  like 
naTbAecaT&  (50)  ;  BOceMb^ecais  (80),  like  BOCCM&  (8)  and  flecai&  (10) 
joined  together  ;  ACBJIHOCTO  (90),  like  CTO  (100)  ;  ipncTO  (300),  and 
neibipecm  (400),  like  ABtciw  (200;  ;  inecibcoTS  (600)  ,  ceMbcoxg  (700), 
(800),  and  4eBaTbc6i&  (900),  like  naibcois  (500). 


§  83.  With  regard  to  the  declension  of  the  cardinal  numerals,  it 
must  be  observed  that,  in  the  instances  of  o^HHtf,  #B0,  ipw,  qeib'ipe, 
the  accusative  case  is  like  the  nominative  or  the  genitive,  according 
to  whether  the  noun  denned  by  the  numeral  in  question  is  animate 
or  inanimate.  In  the  instances,  however,  of  the  rest  of  the 
cardinal  numerals  commencing  with  nai&  five,  the  accusative  case 
is  like  the  nominative,  without  distinction  as  to  the  nouns  being 
animate  or  inanimate. 


84.  Examples  of  the  Declension  of  the  Collective  and  Fractional 

Numerals. 


Cases. 

Masc.  &  Neut.              Fern. 

For  all  Genders. 

N.     H. 

<5<5a,                         66t. 

ip6e.                   qexBepo. 

G.     P. 

OOOHX'b,                          06-fcnXX. 

ipoaxx.               ^etBep^ixx. 

D.     4. 

060HMT>,                          06'BQM'b. 

TpOHMX.                       ^GTBepblMX. 

A.     B. 

COOOHXX,                          061JHXX. 

(.  66a,                        66t. 

TpOHXT).                      HGTBepblXX. 

ipoe.                   qeiBepo. 

I.      T. 

060HMH,                          061JHMH. 

TpOlIMIl.                       leiBCpblMH. 

p.    n. 

BT>  odOMxi,          npn  oOiaxx. 

o  ipOHxx.           ea  leisepbixx. 

both. 

set  of  three.            set  of  four. 

ABOC  set  of  two,  and  o6oe  both,  are  declined  like  ipoe  ;  naiepo  set  of  five,  meciepo 

set  of  six, 

&c.,  are  declined  like  leiBepo. 

Cases. 

Masc.  and  Neut.              Fern.                             All  Genders. 

N.     H. 

nojTOpa,                    n(mopbi,                        no-iTOpacia. 

G.     P. 

nojyropa,                 no^yxopbi,                      nojiyTOpacia. 

D.     4. 

nojyiopy,                 nojyiopt,                       no^yiopaciy. 

A.     B. 

nojiopa,                   nojiopbi,                        eojuopacTa. 

I.     T. 

nojyTOpbiMi,             nojyTOporo,                     nojytopacTa. 

P.     H. 

o  nojyTOpt,            B'b  nojyiopt,                    o  no^yiopacxt. 

one  and  a  half.                          one  hundred  and  fifty. 

§85. 

In  the  instances  of  the  compound  cardinal  numerals,  every 

word  is 

declined,  together  with  the  substantive  and  adjective  with 

which  they  may  be  joined  :  — 

N.     H. 

ipHcra  co.i£aii. 

ceMbcorb  HOBbixx  KHnri,. 

G.     P. 

Tpe'XT)  COTb  COJA^Tl. 

C6MHCOTX  HOBblXX  KHIirb. 

I).     4. 

Tpe'Ml  CiaMl  COJ4HTaAIl. 

CCMHCTaMX  HUBblMl  KHUFaMX. 

A.      B. 

/              f 

TplICTa  C0.1A<lTb. 

CCMbCOTX  UOBblXX  KHHFX. 

I.      T. 

ipeiwa  ciaMH  coJAaiaMH 

CBMblOCTaMH  HOBblMII  KHHraMH. 

p.    n. 

o  xpe'xx  ciaxi;  co.i^aTaxi. 

o  ceMiicxaxx  OOBWXX  KHiiraxx. 

three  hundred  soldiers. 

seven  hundred  new  books. 

N.    n. 

leibipecia  4Ba4qaib  O^HHT,  py6jb. 

G.     P. 

qeTbipe'xicorb   ABaAuaTii   OAHOFO  py6jn. 

D.     4- 

ieTbipeMT>CTaMT>  ABa^ijaTH  OAHOMy  py6.iio. 

A.     B. 

qeibipecia  4BdAqaib  OAHHI  pyfijb. 

I.      T. 

qeibipbinacTaMH   4Ba4uaTbio  O^HUMI  py6.ie'Mi. 

p.    n. 

o  leTbipexiciaxT.  4Ba4qaiu  OAHOMT.  pyfi^-B. 

four  hundred  and   twenty-one  roubles. 


(    45    ) 

N.    H.  i6cflia  BoceMb  corLipM^qaTB  mem  pyo'.ie'fl, 

G.      P.  TftCH^H  OCbMH  COTl  TpO/jqaTH  HI6CTH  py6j£ft, 

D.    4-  TijicflTB  OCBMH  ciasn  TpHfluaTH  mecTH  py6.i»iMT>, 

A.    B.  TLicaiy  Bocenib  coil  TpH/waTb  niecTb  py&i£&, 

I.     T.  TbiCHiero  BoceMbio  CTUMH  Tpe/maibK)  luecibio 

P.       II.  0  TblCHTB  OCbMH  CTaXl  TpHAqaTH  1H6CTH  pyfl.JHX'b, 

one  thousand  eight  hundred  and  thirty-six  roubles. 

§  86.  The  last  word  of  the  compound  ordinal  numerals  is  alone 
declined  with  the  substantive  and  the  adjective  joined  thereto. 
Ex.  N.     H.  T&cflia  B<5ceMb  corb  Tpe^qaib  mecioii  1*041. 

G.    P.  „  „        „  „    mecraro  ro^a. 

D.    4.  „  „        „  „    raecT6Myrd4y. 

A.    B.  „  „        „  „    nieciofi  FOA*. 

I.    T.  „  „        „  „    inecT^iMi  roAOMi. 

P.    n.        .0    „  „        „  ,,    uiecioMi  r<54t!. 

the  »ne  thousand  eight  hundred  and  thirty-sixth  year. 

§  87.  Ordinal  numerals,  like  nouns  adjective,  terminate  in  ou  only 
when  the  accent  falls  on  the  ante-penultimate  letter.  Ex.  Biopow, 
second;  IUCCTOM,  sixth  ;  BOCbMOM,  eighth  ;  &c. 

§  88.  When  the  collective  and  fractional  numerals  are  declined 
with  nouns  substantive,  the  numeral  in  question  is  alone  subject  to 
inflection,  the  substantive  remaining  in  the  genitive  case. 

Ex.  N.    H.  flecflTOKi  rpynii,  napa  Jornada,  i^TBepib 

G.    P.  4ec4iKa  rpyin-b,  napw 

D.    4-  aecsTKy  rpymi,  nap-6 

A.     B.  ^ecflTOKi  rpynn>,  napy 

I  .     T.  flecflTKOMi  rpyini,  naporo  JOinaA^fi,          q^TBepTbio  JHCT&. 

P.     H-  o  aecaTKt  rpymi,  o  napt  joraa4efi,          o  ^TBCPTH  ancia. 

set  of  ten  pears,  pair  of  horses,  leaf  of  paper, 

from  rpyraa.  from  .lomaflb.  from  .IHCTX,  &c. 


THE  PRONOUN 

§  89.  The  pronoun  is  used  in  place  of  a  noun. 

§  90.  Pronouns  are  — 

(1)  Personal  (JHHHO^)  :  Ex.  of  first  person,  ff  I,  MM  we  ;  of  second 
person,  mbi  thou,  6bi  you  ;  of  third  person,  o«»  he,  ona  she,  OHO  it  ; 
OHU  they  (masc.  and  neut.  genders),  onri>  they  (fern,  gender).  Ex. 
ff  nniwy,1  I  am  writing;  mbi  o^eHB  npnjeHt^wK,2  thou  (art)  very 
diligent  ;  o«&  4o6pbiw  TOBapnm»,  he  (is)  a  good  comrade  ;  OHU 
they  went  away. 

1  Present  tense  of  nncarb.    Trans.         2  Shortened  form  of  npH.ie'jKHbiB. 
3  Past  tense  of  yixaib.     Trans. 


(    46     ) 

(2)  Reflective  (B03BpaiHO^),  or  those  which  show  that  the  person 
or  persons,  or  thing  or  things,  perform  an  action  which  is  reflected 
back  to  the  agent  or  agents.     There  is  in  the  Russian  language 
but  one  such  pronoun  for  both  numbers  and  all  genders.     This  is 
ce6v?,  self.     Ex.  Om  OTKaabiBaems  ce&"/&  BT,  nam/fe,  He  denies  himself 
food;   Tbi  40BOJ^&  cooow,  Thou   (art)  satisfied  with  thyself;   OHU  o 
ce6n  He  3a6oT.#wcfl,  They  do  not  take  care  of  themselves. 

(3)  Demonstrative    (yKaaaieJBHoe),  or    those   which   serve   to 
indicate    any    kind    of    object;    such    as,  ceu,    cifi,    cie,  ciu,  this, 
these;    dmoms  -a  -o  -w,  this,  these;  moms  -a  -o  -76,  that,  those; 
OHbiu  -an  -oe  -bie  -MX  this  one,  that  one,  or  the  said;  maKou  -an  -6e 
-bie  -bin  suoh  a  one,  &c.  Ex.  Bmomv  ^OMS  KpacHB5,  a  toms  6e3o6pa3e/f&, 
This  house  (is)  pretty,  but  that  one  (is)  ugly. 

(4)  Possessive    (npHTfljKaiejfcHO^),   or   those   which   denote   to 
which  of  the  three  persons  an  object  belongs  ;  such  as  MOU  -A  -e  -u, 
my,    or    mine ;    meou    -A    -e  -u,    thy    or   thine ;    eto,  his    or    its 
(lit.  of  him  or  of  it);  ceou  -H   -e  -u,  his,  her,  its  or  their  own; 
Hams  -a  -e  -u,  our,  ours ;  earns  -a  -e  -w,  your,  yours  ;  uxs,  their  or 
theirs  (lit.  of  them).     Ex.  BOIT.  MOM  cmitf,  Bam#  Kunra,  TBO*  nepo, 
Here  (is)  my  table,  your  book,  thy  pen. 

(5)  Relative  (oTHOCHieJLHO^),  or  those  which  are  used  in  place 
of  nouns,  and  which  form  a  connection  between  the   person    or 
persons   speaking  and   the   object   or   objects   about   which   they 
speak ;  such  as,  nomopuu  -an  ~oe,  who,  which,  what ;  Koil  -OH  -oe, 
who,  which,  what ;  Kmo,  who  ;  umo,  what ;  ueu  -bH  -be  -bu,  whose ; 
Kanou  -an  -oe,  what  sort  of.    Ex.  H  Kynw^5  Knnry  KOiopyw  flafiiio 
JKCJa./z&  HMto&,  I  have  bought  a  book,  which  I  have  long  wished  to 
have. 

(6)  Interrogative  (BonpociiTeJBHoe),  or  those  which,  in  form,  are 
the  same  as  the  relative  pronouns,  and  which  by  means  of  questions 
endeavour  to  ascertain  to  whom  or  to  what  an  object  belongs.     Ex. 
KoTopb^t  nac&?    What  o'clock  (is  it)?    Kmo  npHWeUS?  Who  has 
come?  *ieu  AOM5?  Whose  house  (is)  it? 

(7)  Definite   (onpefl'kiHTeJBHOtf),  or   those   which   point   with 
preciseness  to  the  person  or  object  spoken  of ;  such  as,  caMS  -d  -6  -u ; 
caMbiu  -an  -oe  -bie  -bw,  the  same,  the  very  same ;  eecb,  ecu,  ecii,  ecn, 
the  whole,  all ;  mwdbiu  -an  -oe  -bie  -bin,  each  one,  every  one.     Ex. 
OHT.  caMS  6bU&  Taint,  He  himself  was  there ;  fl 

,  I  saw  this  same  book. 


(    47    ) 

(8)  Indefinite  (neonpeflixieHHOtf),  or  those  which  speak  some- 
what uncertainly  of  a  person  or  thing ;  such  as,  HibKmo,  somebody ; 
nfbumo,  something ;  nfbKomopbiu  -an  -oe  -we  -bia,  someone,  a  certain 
one  ;  HUKmo,  nobody ;  nuumo,  nothing ;  Kmo,  any  one ;  Koe-umo, 
something;  UHOU  -an  ~6e  -we  -bin,  another;  Kmo-Mi6o,  somebody  or 
other;  umo  Mi6o,  something  or  other ;  Kmo-Hu-6ydb,  somebody  or  other . 
umo-HU-6ydb,  something  or  other.  Ex.  BT>  Hi>KOTOp0.M5  rop04/&  SLUM 
pas-iHHH&J/z  3.ioynoTpe6.ieHi/?,  In  a  cer tain  city  there  were  abuses  of 
various  kinds ;  OHT>  «#niiC£U5  noe-umo  nowe,  He  wrote  something  new. 

To  the  class  of  indefinite  pronouns  belongs  the  word  H'fecKOJBKm 
-an  -oe  -bie  -WA,  some,  a  few.  This  word  is  used,  however,  only  in 
the  oblique  cases  of  the  plural  number.  Ex.  Hi>CKO.iF>KW#ff,  H'BCKOJS- 

KtUC5,  HliCKOJLKtUW,  0  H.ijCKO.IBKW#&. 

Obs. — The  pronoun  ec&ttiU  -an  -oe  -we  -bin  every  one,  all,  is 
a  definite  pronoun  when  used  in  the  sense  of  Kawdbiu  -an 
*oe  -we  -bin,  each  one.  Ex.  BCSKW  (HJH  KaHt^ww)  ooaaans 
TpyAHW&Cfl,  Each  one  (is)  obliged  to  labour.  And  it  is  an 
indefinite  pronoun  when  used  in  the  sense  conveyed  in  the 
following  sentence :  3^CL  poAHica  BCHK^O  po^fl  X-iiSff,  Corn 
of  every  kind  grows  here. 

The  cardinal  numeral  oduuv,  one,  a,  an,  has  sometimes  the 
meaning  of  an  indefinite  pronoun.  Ex.  OAM«&  MOW  npiaie^ft  ompa- 
BHJCH  BT>  JioH^OHS,  A  (certain)  friend  of  mine  has  set  out  for  London. 
In  this  sentence  odunv  stands  for  HfbKomopbiu  or  w'bKmo. 

§  91 .  Some  of  the  pronouns  are  declined  as  substantives,  and 
others  as  adjectives.  The  pronouns  declined  as  substantives  are  the 
following  : — the  personal,  n,  mbi,  Mbi,  6bi,  o#&,  ona,  OHO,  OHU,  oiifb; 
the  reflective,  ce6n  ;  some  of  the  relative  or  interrogative,  such  as 
Kmo,  umo ;  and  the  indefinite,  uuKmo,  Huumo,  HJbKmo,  Hnumo.  All 
the  others,  which  have  for  each  gender  a  special  termination,  are 
declined  as  adjectives. 

§  92.  Declension  of  the  Pronouns. 

(1)  Pronouns  declined  like  substantives  : — 

Singular  Number. 

Fern.  Neut. 

(ma  she.  oed  it. 

ea,  er<5. 

efl,  eMy. 

ee,  erd. 

ilO,  HMl. 

npa  eett,  B 


Cases. 

All  Genders. 

Masc. 

N. 

H. 

II, 

Tu  thou. 

OHI  he. 

G. 

P. 

M6HJ4, 

xedfl, 

erd, 

D. 

A. 

MHt, 

Te6t, 

CMy, 

A. 

B. 

Mean, 

Te<5«. 

erd, 

I. 

T. 

MHdH), 

T(X5dH),f 

HMl, 

P. 

n. 

000  MH'li 

aa  leG*, 

0  Hi'MX, 

Plural  Number. 

Cases. 

All  Genders. 

Masc. 

Fern. 

Neut. 

N.     H. 

Mfai  we,  Bbi  you. 

OBH  they. 

oe*  they. 

OBH  they. 

G.     P. 

Hact,      BacT>, 

HXl, 

HXl, 

HXI. 

D.     4- 

IWM'L,        BaMTi, 

HMT>, 

HMT>, 

DMT.. 

A.     B. 

Haci>,      Baci, 

HXt, 

HXX. 

Hit. 

I.     T. 

IIHMH,         BilMH, 

HMH, 

HMH, 

IIMII. 

P.     H. 

o  iiaci.,    na  Baci, 

0  HHXX, 

0  HHXT), 

BT»   HIIXX. 

. — With  regard  to  the  declension  of  the  pronouns  of  the  third 
person  OH5,OH«,OH0,  OHw,OH'B,it  is  necessary, when  prepositions 
are  used  with  the  oblique  cases  of  such  pronouns,  to  prefix  the 
letter  H  to  the  case  in  question  ;  thus,  y  wero  MOH  HOJK&,  He  has 
my  knife ;  fl  n#y  Kt  WCMJ,  K5  WCH,  en  HHMT>  en  weio,  en  WHMH,  I 
go  to  him,  to  tier,  with  him,  with  her,  with  them.  But  if  the 
genitive  case  of  this  pronoun,  both  singular  and  plural,  is 
used  in  the  sense  of  a  possessive  pronoun,  then  the  letter  H 
is  not  prefixed.  Ex.  fl  6biM  y  eto  npiaiej^,  y  ek  Gpaifl,  H  y 
HXt  cecipw,  I  was  at  his  friend's,  at  her  brother's,  and  their 
sister's. 

The  following  are  declined  in  one  number  only  : — 


N.  H.  nil  KTO  who? 

G.  P.  ce6i,  of  self.  KOFO, 

D.  4.  ce6t,  KOM£, 

A.  B.  ce6fl,  Koro, 

P.  n.  o  ceo"*,  o  KOMI, 


HTO,  what.      BHITO,  nothing. 
BHierd. 


IJBHTO,  no  one. 

BBKOrd, 
HBKOMy, 
HBKOr6, 
HBHtMl, 
OB  0  KdMT), 

Koe-Kid,  KTO-Jiido,  KTO-He6^AB  are  declined  like    KTOJ  and  Roe-lid,   HTO-^a6o,  TTO- 

,  like  ITO. 


HTO, 

TBMX, 
0 


HHHTd. 
BHH'BM'b. 
HH  0 


(2)  Pronouns  declined  like  adjectives  : — 


Singular  Number. 

Plural  Number, 

Cases. 

Masc. 

Fern. 

Neut. 

All  Genders. 

N.     H. 

MOH,  my,  mine. 

MOB, 

Moe. 

MOH. 

G.     P. 

Moerd, 

Moefl, 

Moero. 

MOHXT). 

D.     4. 

M06My, 

MA, 

MoeMy. 

MOH.MT,. 

A.     B. 

(  Moero,  ") 

(  MOH,      j 

MOW, 

Moe. 

(  M01IXX.  ^ 
(  MOH.       ) 

I.      T. 

1 

MO^K), 

MOBMl. 

MOHMII. 

P.    H. 

0  MOe'Mt, 

0  M0e*fi, 

0  MOe.MT). 

0  MOHXl. 

Tfidfi  -&  -e  -^,  thy,  thine,  theirs,  their  ;  CBOH  -a  -e  -rf,  his,  her,  its,  their  own,  are 

declined  like  Noii  -«  -e  -H. 


(     49     ) 


Singular  Number. 

Plural  Number. 

Cases. 

Masc. 

Fern. 

Neut. 

All  Genders. 

N.     H. 

nami.,  our,  ours 

,          BaBia, 

same. 

Damn. 

G.     P. 

Bauiero, 

sauiefl, 

B^raero. 

flauinxi. 

D.     A- 

Banieiay, 

Haul  cii, 

Hamemy. 

BUUIBMl. 

A.     B. 

f  Baniero,  ") 
(  Bami,    y 

udmy, 

Baiiie. 

f  BamHXi. 
^  Bam  if. 

I.     T. 

Haiinnn,, 

naniew, 

BaOIHMl. 

liaiiiinui. 

p.    n. 

0  nalllCMT,, 

0  iiaincii, 

o  eamejii. 

0  BaiUHXl. 

Bami,  -a, 

-e,  -H,  is  declined  like 

iiamx,  -a,  -e  -H. 

Singular  Number. 

Plural  Number. 

Cases. 

Masc. 

Fern. 

Neut. 

All  Genders. 

N.     H. 

cefi,  this, 

cli, 

ci6. 

hese. 

G.     P. 

cer<5, 

cefi, 

cerd. 

CHIT,. 

D.    A- 

ceMy, 

ceii, 

ceMy. 

CRHl. 

A.     B. 

Ccero,  ") 
(.  cefi,    ) 

Ctaft, 

CM. 

f  CHXl. 

(ell 

I.     T. 

CHMl, 

C^H), 

eiun. 

CHHH. 

p.    n. 

ocen, 

o  cefi, 

o  ceiii. 

0  CHXl. 

Singular  Number. 

Plural  Number. 

Cases. 

Masc. 

Fern. 

Neut. 

All  Genders. 

N.     H. 

TOTI,  that, 

Ta, 

TO. 

T*,  those. 

G.     P. 

Tor6, 

TOfi, 

Toro. 

Ttx*. 

D.     A- 

TOMy, 

TOfi, 

TOM^. 

T'liMX. 

A.      B. 

f  lord,  } 

(  TOTl,  ) 

Ty, 

TO. 

(T*. 

I.      T. 

TtMT., 

TOH), 

Tto. 

nm. 

P.      H. 

0  TOMl, 

0  TOfi, 

0  TOMl. 

0  TtXl. 

Singular  Number. 

Plural  Number. 

Cases. 

Masc. 

Fern. 

Neut. 

All  Genders. 

N.    H. 

feoii,  this, 

fea, 

£TO. 

fee. 

G.     P. 

feoro, 

feoff, 

feoro. 

feaxx. 

D.     .4. 

feomy, 

feoff, 

feoiay. 

DFIIMI. 

A.     B. 

C^ioro,  ") 

fey, 

feo. 

f  5THXI. 
^  fell. 

I.     T. 

feHMX, 

6lOK), 

fenn. 

BT0MH. 

P.     H. 

«<5l>  feoMT>, 

061  feofi, 

•0(5l  9TOMT), 

O6l>  BTHXT). 

E 


Singular  Number. 

Plural  Number. 

Cases. 

Masc. 

Fern. 

Neut, 

Mas.Fem.&  Neut. 

N.     H. 

OHMfi, 

6naa, 

dHoe. 

dHbie,  oHbifl. 

this  or  that  one, 

these  or  those. 

the  said, 

the  said. 

G.     P. 

oHaro, 

deofl, 

oearo. 

OOblXl. 

D.     4- 

deoMy, 

OHOfi, 

OHOMy. 

6HbIMT>. 

A.     B. 

foearo,  ") 

I  OHblfi,  j 

deyio, 

6Hoe. 

C  dnxbii. 
\  oHbie,  oHbia. 

I.     T. 

uIIHMX, 

onoio, 

dHblMl. 

dHMMH. 

p.    n. 

061  deosTB, 

o6i>  oeofi, 

061  OOOMI. 

c6x  dHbixi. 

Singular  Number. 

Plural  Number. 

Cases. 

Masc. 

Fern. 

Neut. 

All  Genders. 

N.     H. 

left,  whose, 

ibfl, 

ibe. 

IbQ. 

G.     P. 

iberd, 

Hbefi, 

Hberd. 

^bBXl. 

D.     4- 

HL6M^, 

Hbefi, 

HbeMy. 

qbHMl. 

A.     B. 

fibertf,  ") 
iiefi,     j 

IbK), 

ibe. 

(  HbHXl. 
[  IbH. 

T.     T. 

IMIMT,, 

Hb£lO, 

nan. 

1LHMIK 

P.     H. 

o  ibe'Mi, 

o  Hbett, 

o  ibe'srb. 

0  IbHXX. 

Singular  Number. 

Plural  Number. 

Cases. 

Masc. 

Fern. 

Neut. 

Mas.Fem.&Neut. 

N.     H. 

icaicoii, 

•Utfiff. 

naKoe. 

Kiiia'e,  Kaitia. 

what  sort, 

G.     P. 

Kaicoro, 

KaKdft, 

KaKdro. 

Kanrixx. 

D.    4- 

KaKdMy, 

KaKdfi, 

KaKoMy. 

KaiaiMi,. 

A.      B. 

CuaKdro,  ") 
(Kandfi,  j 

KaKyH), 

Kanoe. 

(  icaiuixx. 
(KaKie,    Kanifl. 

I.     T. 

KaKHMX, 

KaKdro, 

Eaiin. 

lulKllMII. 

P.     H. 

BX  KaKdMT), 

El  KaKdii, 

Bit  lulKOMl). 

BX    lulKUXX. 

TaKoti,  £fl,  de,  ie,  ifl,  are  declined  in 

the  same  manner. 

Singular  Number. 

Plural  Number. 

Cases. 

Masc. 

Fern. 

Neut. 

All  Genders. 

N.     H. 

caMi>,  alone, 

caiwa, 

cai«6. 

CUMH. 

G.     P. 

caiuord, 

CAMdl, 

caMord. 

caMiixx. 

D.     4- 

caMOMy, 

caMofl, 

caMOMy. 

CaMHMT). 

A.      B. 

(  caMord,  ) 
(  caMi,     j 

f  caMyro,) 
\  camoe,  > 

cano. 

/  caMexi. 

t  CaMH. 

I.      T. 

CaMHMt, 

caMdro, 

CaMHMl. 

CaMQMH. 

P.     H. 

0  C;iM<)M'I,, 

o  caMdfi, 

0  CaMOMX. 

0  CaMHXT>. 

Singular  Number. 

Plural  Number. 

Cases. 

Masc. 

Fern. 

Neut. 

Mas.  Fern  .  &Neut 

N.     H. 

caMbitt, 
the  very,  the 
self  same. 

caHafl, 

ca.Moe. 

caMbie,  caMMH, 
these  or  those 
very,  the  self 

same. 

G.      P. 

caMaro, 

caMoli, 

cainaro. 

caubixi. 

D.     4- 

CaMOMy, 

cii.MOii, 

CdMOMy. 

caMUMi. 

A.      B. 

("  cfiMaro,  "£ 

\  CHMblfi,  ) 

caMy», 

cauoe. 

fcdMMXl. 
(  C.'lM  WC,  CUMMH. 

I.     T. 

CaMUMT., 

caMoro, 

CaMMM'B. 

CUMWMII. 

p.    n. 

0  CilMOM'b, 

o  cu.MOii, 

0  CUMOM't. 

o  caMbixi. 

• 

Singular  Number. 

Plural  Number. 

Cases. 

Masc. 

Fern. 

Neut. 

All  Genders. 

N.     H. 

BGCb, 

all,  the  whole. 

BCH, 

Bee. 

BCt. 

G.      P. 

Bcero, 

Bcefi, 

Bcerd. 

BCtXl. 

D.     4. 

BceMy, 

Bcett, 

BCGMy. 

BCtMl. 

A.     B. 

(  Bcero,  ^ 
|  Becb,    | 

BCH), 

Bee. 

{BCtXX. 
BCt. 

I.      T. 

BC'BM'b, 

BCCK), 

BCtMX. 

Bci.MH. 

P.      H. 

060  BC6MI, 

ea  Bccii, 

UPII  BCtJMT). 

BO  BCtXl. 

The  pronoun  nfbKmo  is  used  only  in  the  nominative  case,  and 
bwno  only  in  the  nominative  and  accusative  cases.  Ex.  Nibumo  KO 

/b  npHXOAH^^,  somebody  came  to  me ;  fl  CKaaty  BaM^  Hibumo  HOBO^ 
I  will  tell  you  something  new.  For  the  other  cases  of  these  two 
pronouns  the  oblique  cases  of  Kmo-mo  and  umo-mo  are  substituted. 
Ex.  Koeo-wo  ntrL,  £0/00  0^2  (is)  wanting;  KO^-TO  CKy^HO,  some 
one  (is)  dull ;  H^O-TO  ne  £OCTam5,  something  is  not  obtainable ; 
H/&JW5-TO  ero  Harpa^^m^,  they  will  reward  him  with  something.  All 
the  other  pronouns  are  declined  like  adjectives  with  full  ter- 
minations. 

THE  VERB  (Fiard!*)- 

§  93.  A  Verb  denotes  the  action  or  condition  of  an  object.  Ex. 
,  to  praise;  XBa^UTbca,  to  praise  one's  self,  to  boast;  6bimb 
,  to  be  praised,  &c. 


§  94.  Verbs  are  divided,  according  to  their  signification,  into  the 
following  Voices  (Sajortf)  : — 

( 1)  Active  (^HCTBHTeJBHbm),  which  denotes  an  action  that  passes 
from  the  agent  to  the  object.  Now,  as  the  greater  part  of  verbs  of 
the  active  voice  require  the  accusative  case,  their  class  can  be 


(     52     ) 

ascertained  by  the  questions  Roio  ?  Whom?  *Im  6?  What?  Ex.  fl 
Xfia.170  (Koto)  ?  I  praise  (whom)  ?  Ans.  EpaT#,  Brother,  fl  HHiaw 
*lmo  ?  I  am  reading  (what)  ?  Ans.  KnHry,  a  book. 

(2)  Neuter  (cpe^Hw),  which,  being  the  opposite  of  the  active 
voice,  denotes  some  kind  of  condition  or  action  that  does  not 
pass  from  the  agent  to  any  object,  but  which  is  complete  in  itself. 
Ex.  Hdmu,  to  go  (once)  ;  xo^itt&,  to  go  (more  than  'once)  ;  cnaw&, 
to  sleep  ;  i>x#w&,  to  drive  ;  ujL&Kamb,  to  weep. 

Obs.  —  (1)  The  verbs  6bimb,to  be,  and  cmamb,  to  become,  to  begin, 
which  are  of  the  neuter  voice,  are  called  Auxiliary  (ficnoMora- 
Te^LH&m)  Verbs,  because  they  assist  in  forming  the  tenses  of 
other  verbs.  Ex.  fl  §ydy  HHiam&,  I  will  read  ;  Tbi  6buz  Ha- 
rpaJKA^wff,  Thou  wast  rewarded  ;  OHT>  ciaM  nvicdmb,  He  began 
to  write.  The  verb  fibimb  when  used  separately  stands  in 
the  place  of  the  verbs  cymecTBOBawi&,  to  be,  to  exist,  and 
,  to  find  oneself,  to  exist,  to  be.  Ex.  y  wero  ecmb 
,  He  has  books,  lit.  (there)  are  books  with  him  ;  fl  6tU5 
y  GpaVra,  I  was  at  (my)  brother's.  The  verb  6bimb  is  in  such 
instances  called  a  Substantive  Verb  (cymecTBUTe.ibH&ZM  i\iaro.i&). 

Obs.  —  (2)  All  Verbs  which  give  expression  to  the  call  or  cry 
of  the  several  four-footed  animals  or  of  birds  are  of  the 
neuter  voice.  Ex.  .leBtf  pbiKaewtf,  the  lion  roars,  from  p&i- 
Kait  ;  M6ABi>A&  pefiemtf,  the  bear  growls,  from  pefitiL  ;  co6aKa 
H  .IHCHU0  .lawmtf,  the  dog  and  the  fox  bark,  from 

ewis,  the  crow  caws,  from  KapKaib  ;  copoKtf 
J,  the  magpie  chatters,  from  meoeiait  ;  jouia4& 
the  horse  neighs,  from  pjKaib  ;  BO.IK5  BoeiT>,  the  wolf  howls, 
from  BbiTB  ;  6biK5  H  KOpoBrt  Mbi4aT&,  the  bull  (or  ox)  and  the 
cow  low,  from  Mbinaib;  OBUO-  6.iem5,  the  sheep  bleats,  from 
6.ieflTb;  KotWKa  MflVKaems,  the  cat  mews,  from  MflVKaib  ; 
xpK)Kaewi5,  the  pig  grunts,  from  xpioKaib  ;  rojy6& 
the  pigeon  coos,  from  BOpitOBaib  ;  Kypima  niomemv,  the  hen 
clucks,  from  luoxiaib  ;  ^aryniKa  KBaKams,  the  frog  croaks, 
from  KBaKaib  ;  cipeKoaa  H  nne^a  jKyHUKaitf,  the  dragon-fly  and 
the  bee  buzz,  from 


(3)  Reflective  (B03BpaTH&m),  which  indicates  an  action  that  is 
reflected  back  from  the  object  to  the  agent.  The  reflective  verbs 
of  the  Russian  language  are  formed  by  the  union  of  a  verb  of  the 
active  voice  with  a  contracted  form  of  the  reflective  pronoun 


(     53    ) 


ce6a    (en).     Ex.  XBa.m/w&ca  =  xeajitto   ce6a,  to  praise  one's  self; 
=  MBI/W&  ce6a,  to  wash  one's  self. 


(4)  Reciprocal  (B3aHMH&m),  which  denotes  a  reciprocal  action 
between  the  agent  and  the  object  or  objects.     Verbs  of  this  voice 
also  terminate  in  en.     They  answer,  moreover,  to  the  questions  —  CT> 
K-EM't  ?    With    whom  ?    Ex.  ccopwm&ca,  to  quarrel  ;    cpaJKa/n&ca,  to 
fight  ;    &c. 

Obs.  —  There  are  some  verbs  without  the  suffix  en  that  have 
the  meaning  of  verbs  of  the  reciprocal  voice.  Ex.  cn6pwm&, 
to  dispute;  'irpom&j  to  play.  All  such  answer  to  the 
question,  C't  K-BMT.  ?  With  whom  ? 

(5)  Common  (66mm).     These  likewise  terminate  in  en,  and 
without  the  particle  they  are  not  used.     They  have  the  meaning 
of  verbs  of  either  the  active  or  neuter  voice.     Ex.  Go/rw&ca,  to  fear, 
to  be  afraid  of  ;    Koro?  nero?   of  whom  ?  of  what  ?    noBHHOBa/r&ca, 
to  be  obedient  to;  KOMy?  HCMy?   to   whom?  to  what?  na^/zm&ca, 
to  rely  on  ;    na  Koro,  na  HTO  ?  on  whom  ?  on  what  ?  ipy^w&ca,  to 
labour  ;    naA'B  H^MI  ?  at  what  ?     (The  above  have  the  meaning  of 
verbs  of  the  active  voice.)      YjwSam&ca,  to  smile  ;  OHVTww&ca,  to 
appear  ;    and  jtHwm&ca,  to  be  lazy  ;   have  the  meaning  of  verbs 
of  the  neuter  voice. 

(6)  Passive  (cipaAaTe.iBH&m),  which  betokens  the  condition  of 
one  object  with  the  action  of  another.     Ex.  6ww&  JioSaMy,   to  be 
loved,  &c.     Verbs  of  the  passive  voice  are  formed  by  joining  an 
active  verb  with  various  parts  of  the  auxiliary  verb  GBITB.     They 
answer    to   the    questions,   idjMi  ?    HtMT>  ?    ly   whom  ?    by   what  ? 
Sometimes  verbs  of  the  passive  voice  terminate  in  en.     Ex.  IIOHH- 

,  to  be  respected,  &c. 


%  95.  Certain  verbs,  according  to  the  meaning  which  they  convey, 
are  of  various  voices.  Ex.  Active  Verb  —  OHT.  Hrpaems  Ha  CKpnnK^ 
HOB^W  ntcHW,  He  is  playing  a  new  song  on  the  violin.  Neuter 
yerl  _  OHT>  ne  yHHic^,  a  Brpaems,  He  does  not  study,  but  plays. 
Reciprocal  Verb  —  fl  6eLrca  CT>  HHMT>  na  pannpa#ff,  I  fenced  with  him 
(lit.  fought  with  rapiers  with  him).  Eeflective  Verb  —  fl  flojro 
HaAT>  STOW  mfaeio,  I  laboured  for  a  long  time  over  this 


(    54    ) 

problem  ;    &c.      Verbs  of  the  Neuter   Voice    before  which  certain 
prepositions  are  placed  become  Verbs  of  the  Active  Voice  :  — 


Ex.  :  Neuter  Verb,  E^IU,  to  go  ;  Active  Verb,  nepeEftTu,  to  go  across. 
„  „  X04HT&,  to  go;  „  „  0#xo£nT&,  to  go  round. 
„  „  cnai&,  to  sleep  ;  „  „  npocuan,  to  oversleep. 

§  96.  The  properties  of  Russian  verbs  which  render  them  liable 
to  changes  of  termination  are  —  mood  (HaiuoHeme)  ,  tense  (BpeM/z), 
aspect  (BHAT>),  person  (AKHO),  number  (nncwio),  gender  (po^tf),  par- 
ticiple (npnHacT^),  gerund 


§  97.    The  mood  gives  expression  to  various  forms  of  action  or 
of  condition,  either  in  the  person  or  agent. 

§  98.  Russian  verbs  have  three  moods  :  — 

(1)  Infinitive  (Heonpe/j'fe.ieHHOi?),  which  does  not  show  by  whom 
or  when  the  action  was  performed  ;  i.  e.  which  does  not  point  out 
the  time,  or  number  and  gender  of  the  person  or  persons,  at  which, 
and  by  whom,  the  action  was  performed.  Ex.  nncaw&,  to  write  ; 
,  to  fight  ;  &c. 


(£)  Indicative  (HatflBiiTeJBiioe),  which  shows  by  whom  and 
when  the  action  was  performed  —  which  shows,  in  fact,  the  time  and 
number,  and  even  the  gender,  of  the  person  or  persons,  at  which, 
and  by  whom,  the  action  was  performed.  Ex.  H  nnwy,  I  am 
writing;  TLI  cpaJKa^ca,  thou  foughtest;  on#  Hrpiutf,  she  played;  &c. 


(3)  Imperative  (IIoBe.iHTe.iBH0<?),  which  conveys  an  order,  wish, 
or  prohibition,  for  or  against  a  thing  being  done.  Ex.  UHWU,  write 
(thou)  ;  nyciB  OHI  AiuaerB,  let  him  do  (it)  ;  He  cpa/Kanxecb,  do  not 
(you)  fight;  &c. 

Obs.  —  In  order  to  express  by  means  of  a  Russian  verb  the  sub- 
junctive (cocJiaraTe.iBHoe),  or  conditional  (^CA6^Eoe),mood,  which 
is  in  use  in  foreign  languages,  the  conjunction  6bi  is  added 
to  the  past  tense  of  the  verb  in  question.  Ex.  fl  KOHHM./J& 
6bi  3T0  Aiuo,  ecJH  fibi  HMiu&  Aocyrff,  I  would  have  finished 
this  business  if  I  had  had  time  ;  &c. 

99.  The  tense  of  a  Russian  verb  shows  either  that  the  action 


(    55    ) 

of  the  agent  is  now  taking  place,  or  that  it  has  taken  place  at  some 
time  or  other  before,  or  that  it  will  yet  take  place.  And  therefore  a 
Bussian  verb  has  three  tenses,  viz.  present  (Hacioamee),  past  (npo- 
,  and  future  (6yAymt?e). 


§  100.  The  aspect  of  a  Russian  verb  shows  the  difference  of  time 
required  for  the  performance  of  an  action.  Ex.  OH&  piiuajt,  he  was 
deciding  ;  OH&  ptmHJ5,  he  has  decided;  OH&  KpHiw^uff,  he  shouted 
(once)  ;  OH&  xa3KHBaJ5,  he  used  to  walk  (habitually}. 

§  101.  Russian  verbs  have  four  Aspects:  (1)  imperfect  (necOBep- 
(2)  perfect  (coBepmeHH&m)  ;  (3)  perfect  of  unity  (O^HO- 
(4)  iterative  (MHoroKpaiHWw).  The  present  tense  has  no 

aspects.     The  past  tense  may  have  all  four.     The  future  tense  has 

three  ,  viz.  imperfect,  perfect,  and.  perfect  of  unity. 


§  102.  The  signification  of  the  several  aspects  is  as  follows  :  — 

(1)  The  imperfect  aspect  denotes  either  that  the  action  has 
not  altogether  ceased,  or  that  it  will  not   finish.     Ex.  fl  uncaM, 
I  wrote;   fl  6y#y  nncam&,  I  will  be  writing;  &c. 

(2)  The  perfect  aspect  denotes  either  that  the  action  has  been 
quite  completed,  or  that  it  will  definitely  cease.     Ex.  fl  Hannca^ffj 
I  have  written  (once  for  all)  ;  fl  Hanwuy,  I  will  write  (finally}. 

(3)  The  aspect  of  the  perfect  of  unity  denotes  either  that  the 
action  has  taken  place  or  will  take  place  once,  and  that  rapidly. 
Ex.  Tbi  crfmyM,  thou   hast   knocked  ;   fl  CT^K«y,  I  am  going   to 
knock. 

(4)  The  iterative  aspect  denotes  that  the  action  has   taken 
place  several  times.     Ex.  fl  HHTW&U&,  I  used  (often)  to  read  ;  Ofl5 

He  was  in  the  habit  of  walking. 


Obs.  —  Russian  verbs  admit,  too,  of  a  fifth  aspect  being  added, 
that  of  the  inchoative  (HaHHHaiejBH&jw)  .  This  aspect  denotes 
that  any  sort  of  action  has  merely  been  begun.  Ex.  fl  sa- 
irlus  =  fl  HaHdUtf  nfcr&,  I  began  to  sing  ;  OETL  3«  nrpaewtf  = 
0H5  HaH/t£m5  wrpam&  cwo  MHHvry,  He  will  begin  to  play 
this  minute  ;  Bfrrep*  uodyM  =  Bi>Tep&  Hana^s  Ayib,  The 
wind  began  to  blow. 


(     56     ) 

§  103.  The  infinitive  mood  does  not  indicate  the  time  at  which  an 
action  takes  place,  yet  it  has  all  four  aspects :  (1)  imperfect,  CTy*iati>, 
to  knock;  (2)  perfect,  /iGCTyiaiB,  to  knock  a  little ;  (3)  perfect  of 
unity,  ciyKwym&,  to  give  a  knock ;  (4)  iterative,  wyKueamb,  to  knock 
repeatedly. 

\  104.  The  indicative  mood  comprises  all  the  tenses  and  all  the 
aspects  pertaining  to  those  tenses. 

§  105.  The  imperative  mood,  although  it  does  not  possess  tenses, 
has  three  aspects  :  (1)  imperfect,  ciyw,  knock  (thou) ;  (2)  perfect 
of  unity,  CTJKHU,  knock  (thou)  once ;  (3)  perfect,  nociyuu,  knock 
(thou)  a  little. 

§  106.  Russian  verbs  have  three  persons,  which  are  usually 
represented  by  the  personal  pronouns: — 1st  person,  a,  MM; 
2nd  person,  TBI,  BBI  ;  3rd  person,  OH&,  OHa,  OHO,  QRU,  OH/&.  Ex.  fl. 
nmiuy,  MM  uuweMV,  mbi  UEwewb,  ebi  n&weme;  OH&  nnctLfB,  OHO- 
uvicdja,  OHO'  EECCLJO,  OEU  or  OH/&  DHCCUU. 

§  107.  The  two  Numbers  of  Russian  Verbs  are  the  Singular  and 
the  Plural.  The  former  denotes  the  action  or  condition  of  one  agent 

o 

or  object:  Ex.  fl  cipow,  Jam  building  (a  house).  The  latter  points 
to  the  action  or  condition  of  two  or  more  agents  or  objects  :  Ex.  MBI 
CTp6w.M&,  We  are  building  (a  house). 

§  108.  The  use  of  the  gender  in  Russian  verbs  is  confined  to 
the  past  tense.  Ex.  fl  HHia.i&,  ona  HHiaia,  OHO  HJH  AHW/Z  Hniajo, 
/read,  she  read,  it  or  the  child  read. 

§  109.  A  participle  is  an  adjective  formed  from  a  verb.  Ex. 
6orama70w^'w  CBOM  yM5  H&ymMu  6yAewB  no.ie3e«&  ce6i  H 
,  The  youth  (who)  enriches  his  intellect  with  science  will 
be  useful  to  himself  and  to  others.  The  Russian  participle  takes 
the  place  of  two  words,  viz.  the  relative  pronoun  KOiop&zw,  who  or 
which,  and  any  of  the  tenses  of  the  indicative  mood  of  a  verb  ; 
thus,  instead  of  saying  K)HOintf,  KOTop&zw  o6oramaew&  CBOM  VM& 
HayKflJWM,  &c.,  it  is  usual  to  express  the  sentence  in  Russian  in  the 
way  above  shown. 

§  1 10.  Participles,  being  formed  from  verbs,  possess  voices,  tenses, 


(    S7     ) 

and  aspects  ;   and,  as  verbal  adjectives,  they  possess  also  genders, 
numbers,  and  cases. 

§111.  A  Gerund  is  a  verb  placed  in  such  a  form  as  to  contain  a 
meaning  which  is  not  complete  without  the  addition  of  some  other 
verb.  Ex.  CMompA  6$  OKHO,  OH5  JK)6yeiwca  npexipSLCEbiMZ  mnoMG, 
Whilst  looking  out  of  the  window,  he  admires  the  beautiful  view. 

§  112.  A  Gerund,  being  part  of  a  verb,  has  voices,  tenses,  and 
aspects. 

§  113.  The  terminations  of  Russian  verbs  are  subject  to  change 
according  to  their  mood,  tense,  aspect,  person,  number,  and  gender. 
These  changes  are  called  conjugations 


§  114.  Russian  verbs  have  two  conjugations.  The  2nd  person, 
singular  number,  present  tense,  indicative  mood,  of  regular  Kussian 
verbs  of  the  1st  conjugation  invariably  terminates  in  ewi>  :  Ex.  Tbi 
HHia0w&,  TjAiiewb,  npomam&cfl.  Whereas  the  corresponding  part  of 
a  regular  Russian  verb  of  the  2nd  conjugation  ends  in  uwb  :  Ex. 
CTOWW&,  Bepiztwi&,  KopMMtw&ca. 


§  115.    Before  considering  the  conjugation  of  the  other  verbs,  it 
may  be  well  to  conjugate  the  auxiliary  verb  6&1T&,  to  be. 

INFINITIVE  MOOD. 

Imperfect  aspect    .     .    6fciTb,  to  be. 
Iterative  aspect      .     .    fowdmb,  to  be  (often). 

INDICATIVE  MOOD. 
Present  Tense  of  font. 


Singular  Number. 

fl  ecMb,  I  am. 

TH  CCH,  Thou  art. 

OHT,  )  (He-) 

Ona   V  ecTb,  4Shev.  is. 

Ofld)  (It,   ) 


Plural  Number. 

MM  ecMU,     We  are. 
«M  ecx^,      You  are. 

oil  \ cyTb>  They  are- 


Obs. — ECMB,  eca,  CCMW  and  ecie,  are  not  in  use  in  modern 
Russian. 


Present  Tense  0/*6tiBaTB. 

fl  dbiBaro,  I  am  often. 

TLI  dMBaemb,          Thou  art  often. 
OHT,  ^  rHe 


Ofla  CdbiBaerb,  3  She  f  is  often. 


OH6J 


It    J 


Past  Tense  o, 


fl  dr.m>, 

I  was. 

TbI  dbUT., 

Thou  wast. 

OHT>  dbm>, 

He  was. 

Oui'i  Cbi.iu, 

She  was. 

OHO  dbuo, 

It  was. 

Past  Tense  of 


a  dbiBan>,      I  used  to  be. 

Tbi  dbiBiUT),    Thou  usedst  to  be. 

OBT,  dLiBfuT>,  He  ") 

Ona  dusiia,  She  f-used  to  be. 

OHO  dLIBliO,   It     J 


Future  Tense  of 


fl  dyAY,  I  will  be. 

TLI  dy^einb,     Thou  wilt  be. 

OHT.  ^  fHe  ^ 

Ona  C  dyACTT.,    ]  She  >  will  be. 

OHO)    '  Ut    ) 


MM  dwaaeM-b, 
BLI 

OHrf 


Mu  dbi.m, 
BLI 

OH^1) 
OH*] 


MM 
Bu 
OHH 


Mw  6yAenrb, 
BLI  6yfleie, 


We  are  often. 
You  are  often. 

are  often. 


We  were. 
You  were. 


We  used  to  be. 
You  used  to  be. 

to  be. 


We  will  be. 
You  will  be. 
They  will  be. 


THE  IMPERATIVE  MOOD. 


By4b  TLI,    Be  thou. 

IlycTb  om.,  ona,  OHO, 

Let  him,  her,  or  it,  be.  -' 


Be  you 

flycTb  OHO,  OH*, 
Let  them  be. 


PARTICIPLES. 


Present  of  CLITL 
Present  of 
Past  of  dHTb  . 
Past  of  6binaTi. 
Future  of  dMTb 


cyrqifi  -aa  -ee  -ie,  -ia,*  who,  or  which,  is,  or  are. 
dbiBdronjifi  -aa  -ee  -ie  -ia,  who,  or  which,  is,  or  are. 
dLiBinifi  -aa  -ee  -ie  -ia,  who,  or  which,  was,  or  were. 
dbiBaBiiiiu  -aa  -ee  -ie  -ia,  who,  or  which,  used  to  be. 
-aa  -ee  -ie  -ia,  who,  or  which,  will  be. 


Present  of  duib 
Past  of  dbiib     . 

Past  Of 


GERUNDS. 

dy^yie,  being. 

dLiBi,  dbiBraa,  having  been. 

dwBaBT>,  dbiBaBfflH,  having  often  been. 


*  Ancient  Slavonic  form,  cwfi  -aa  -oe  -Lie  -wa. 


§  116.  The  auxiliary  verb  ciaiB,  to  become,  to  begin,  has  only 
two  tenses,  viz.  the  future,  a  ciawy,  and  the  past,  fl  cia.Jff.  The 
first  of  these  is  used  in  place  of  the  same  tense  of  the  verb  6biTL 
(a  Gy^y)  :  Ex.  fl  ciany,  or  fl  6y£y,  nncait,  I  will  write.  The  second 
in  place  of  the  same  tense  of  the  verb  HanaiB,  to  begin  :  Ex.  fl  cxa^?, 
or  fl  Haiajff,  nncam&,  I  began  to  write. 

§  117.    The  regular  Russian  verbs  are  conjugated  in  the  follow- 


ing manner  :- 


FORMS  OF  THE   CONJUGATIONS. 

INFINITIVE  MOOD. 

(Has  no  Tenses.) 


ASPECTS. 
Imperfect    .... 

TERMINATIONS. 
ara,  ib,  TH. 

HTb,  Hb.  TH. 

EXAMPLES. 

C  ptraatb,       to  decide. 
<  neib,           to  bake. 
C  H6CTH,          to  carry.          [all. 
C  ptinuTb,       to  decide,  once  for 
<  Hcneib,        to  bake  through. 

•  • 
Perfect  of  Unity   .     . 

HyTb. 

HBalb,  LlIJUTb. 

(^  noneciH,      to  carry  away, 
^yeyib,        to  blow. 
^  cxyKHByib,  to  knock. 
(.  4BBHyib,      to  move. 
(  iiaiiiiiiiaTb,  to  sew  on. 

|  AtJUBaib,    to  do. 

INDICATIVE  MOOD. 
Present  Tense. 


Singular  Number. 

a  ro,  y. 

»       P.lural  Number. 

The  Present   Tense 
has  no  Aspects. 

TH  emb,  Biiib. 

OBI") 
OHa    [-...eTX,  HTT>. 

OHO  J 

Mbl  CMl,  HMl. 
Bbl  6T6,    HT6. 

(OH*   J 

Past  Tense. 


Imperfect  and  Perfect 

f        fl,  TH,  QBT>...JIT>. 
Ona....ia. 
(^                   Oeo...  jo. 

Mbl,  Bw     —  "^ 
OBH  —    >JLU. 
Ofli  —   ) 

Perfect  of  Unity  .    . 

T        fl,  Tw,  OHT»-eyji. 
OHa-nyja. 
(_                   OHo-Hy.io. 

Mbi,  Bbi^  —     "^ 
OHH  —     >  Hy^H. 
Oe-6  —    ) 

(  a,  Tbi,  OHX-0Baji,  MBa.li. 

Mbi,  Bw     —    "^ 

Ona-iiBa.ia,  LiBa.ia. 

C                   OHO-OBa^O,  bIB&IO. 

Oat  —     ) 

(    60    ) 


Future  Tense. 


ASPECTS. 


Imperfect     ... 


Perfect 


Perfect  of  Unity  . 


TERMINATIONS. 


EXAMPLES. 


MM  6f  flem-b 


Tb,  <n>,  TH. 


Has  the  same  terminations  as  the  Present  Tense. 


fl ey. 

TM neiiib. 

OHT>,  Ona,  OHO,  ...HGTI. 


MM Hesrb. 

BM eeie. 


OH* 


IMPERATIVE  MOOD. 

(Has  no  Tenses.) 


For    the  Imperfect, 

Singular  Number. 

TbI  H,  b,  ft. 

Plural  Number. 
BM  .      .  ..IITO,  bie  HTG 

Perfect,  and  Perfect 
of  Unity    .... 

HycTb,  OHI,  ] 
OQ5,OH6JeTll»HT1>< 

nvcib    /°H9  WTI,  yi^. 

'    (Oflt  HTl,    ail,. 

PARTICIPLES. 


GERUNDS. 


ASPECTS. 

The  Present  Tense 
has  no  Aspects. 


Present  Tense. 


Singular  Number. 

Masc.    Fern.    Neut. 
-mifl,      -aa,      -ee. 

Plural  Number. 

Masc    Fern.  &  Neut. 
-raie         -mia. 


All  Numbers  and  Genders. 


-a,  -a,  -yiH,  -ma. 


For  all  Aspects. 


Past  Tense. 


Singular  Number. 
Masc.    Fern.    Neut. 
-Binifi,    -aa,      -ee. 

Plural  Number. 
Masc.  Fern.  &  Neut. 
-Binie,        -sraifl. 


All  Numbers  and  Genders. 


-BX,  -inn. 


Verbs  which  terminate  in  CR  are  also  conjugated  according  to 
the  above  table,  by  adding  cb  or  en.  Ex.  H  saHHMaiocL,  I  occupy 
myself ;  TBI  nponfanBam&cfl,  Thou  art  taking  a  walk  ;  Bbi 
You  are  laughing;  OHW  y#HB.iaK)wcfl,  They  are  astonished. 


(     61     ) 

The  conjugation  of  verbs  of  the  passive  voice  will  be  explained 
separately. 

§  118.  With  regard  to  the  forms  of  their  conjugation,  Russian 
verbs  are  classed  as  — 

(1)  Regular  (npaBH.ii>H&m),  or  such  as  retain  the  primary 
syllable  in  all  their  moods,  tenses,  aspects,  and  numbers,  and  which 
have,  in  all  their  parts,  regular  terminations,  according  to  the 
ordinary  rules  for  the  conjugation  of  verbs.  Ex.  nmiiy,  I  write  ; 
niiCcUtf,  I  wrote;  Han  H  my,  I  will  write  ;  HStacfl/z/o,  I  am  explain- 
ing ;  H3T>acH^&,  I  explained  ;  H3tflCH«^z»,  I  explained  once  for  all; 
jo,  I  will  explain  ;  &c. 


(2)  Irregular  (aenpaBHJtHbm),  or  such  as  do  not  everywhere 
retain   their   primary   syllable,   and  which   in   their   terminations 
depart  from  the  ordinary  rules  for  the  conjugation  of  verbs.     Ex. 

me.i&,  raoH^y  (from  H^TH,  to  go)  ;  &M5,  ius,  (from  icm&,  to  eat)  ; 
y  (from  6pai&,  to  take)  ;   B3JU&  and  B03tMy  (from  B3HT&,  to  take)  ; 
(from  joJKHT&ca,  to  lie  down)  ;  Aert  and  Amy  (from  jeib,  to 
lie  down)  ;  &c. 

(3)  Those  conveying  a  seme  of  fullness  (H3o6iui>H&m),  or  such 
as  have  in  the  present  tense  two  distinct  terminations  conveying 
the  self-same  meaning.     Ex.  frmwy  and  wmaio,  I  move 

and  CTpad^JO,  I  endeavour  ;    ajiny  and  a.itfa-70,  I  am  hungry  ; 
and  ftjLucmdjo,  I  shine  ;  w&wy  and  Ma^aw,  I  am  beckoning. 


(4)  Defective  (iieAOCTaTOHHbm),  or  such  as  have  not  any  par- 
ticular tense  or  aspect.  Ex.  noHM<m&  to  catch,  oqwym&cfl  to  wake 
up,  MOABumb  to  utter,  paHwmo  to  wound,  which  have  no  present 
tense  ;  or  the  following,  which  have  no  past  or  future  tenses  of  the 
perfect  aspect  :  —  o6offiam&  to  worship,  oyRuddmb  to  await,  onacawi&ca 
to  dread,  no^paJKams  to  imitate,  coJKa.i/&w&  to  commiserate,  &c. 


(5)  Impersonal  (SesjHHH&m),  or  such  as  are  used  only  in  the 
3rd  person.  Ex.  MOJKBO  (it  is)  possible,  AOJIKHO  (it)  should  be, 
Kawmca  it  appears,  ffiaj&  (it  is  a)  pity,  nto  (T.  e.  He  ecib)  there  is  not, 
cnumcfl  one  is  drowsy,  rofiopwmcfl  it  is  said,  xowmcfl  one  would  like, 
it  dawns,  Moposwwff  it  freezes,  rOBOp^ms  they  say,  &c. 


(6)  Frequentative  (y^amaTeJBH&m),  or  such  as  denote  a  certain 


(    62    ) 

amount  of  continuance  in  the  time  of  the  action  which  they 
illustrate.  Ex.  noxdoicueamb  to  walk  up  and  down,  norjLkfibieamb  to 
look  round,  &c. 

§  119.   Russian  verbs,  according  to  their  coastruction,  are  also  — 

(1)  Simple  (npocw0M),  or  such  as  have  not  prefixed  to  them 
prepositions  or  other  words,  and  which  therefore  retain  their  primi- 
tive meanings.  Ex.  #feHCTB0<?aw&  to  act,  HOCWW&  to  carry,  \wumb 
to  walk,  HB.i/zm&CH,  to  appear  generally,  &c. 


Compound  (cAOMRbiii)  ,  or  such  as  have  prefixed  to  them 
prepositions  or  other  words  (in  some  instances  nouns  substantive). 
Ex.  fijiaiOTBOpumb  to  do  good,  sdoj&hciBoeamb  to  do  evil,  coxbtLCt- 
Boeamb  to  co-operate,  omROcumb  to  take  away,  pascKstibieamb  to 
narrate,  yxo/pw&  to  go  aioay,  notLBAJimbcn.  to  make  one's  appear- 
ance, &c. 

Obs.  —  The  greater  portion  of  the  compound  verbs  are  formed 
by  prefixing  prepositions  to  the  iterative  aspect  of  simple 
verbs.  Ex.  nepeffalbwamt  to  do  over  again,  om&wmmb  to 
ride  away,  pacKipwueamb  to  paint  all  over.  Very  many 
simple  verbs,  in  order  to  form  their  perfecl  aspect,  take  as 
prefixes  various  prepositions,  or  else  borrow  the  perfect 
aspect  bodily  from  compound  verbs.  Ex.  nucdmb  to  write, 
;  ciaBwm&  to  erect,  nocmBumb  ;  Kpacwm&  to  colour, 
;  interns  to  blossom,  pacn.tfbcmb  ;  &c. 


EXAMPLES  OP  THE  CONJUGATIONS. 

§  120.  Of  the  Regular  Verls. 

(1)  Conjugation  of  Verbs  of  the  Active  and  Neuter  Voices  : 
Aspects.  INFINITIVE  MOOD. 


Imperfect  .     .    .        4-kiarb.                   ciyiaib.                  ataib. 
Perfect.    .    .    .        c/CB-iarb.                 nociyiaTb.               noJKBTb. 
Perfect  of  Unity.  CTyKHyib.  


Iterative    .     .    «         ^'LiLiBaib.  (not  used).  /Kiiudib. 

to  do.  to  knock.  to  live.  to  see. 


INDICATIVE  MOOD. 


Present  Tense.    Imperfect  Aspect. 


fl. 

A-kiaio.                    ciyqy. 

HJHBy. 

Dn/ny  • 

Tbl. 

r                                    i 

$'I».l(1CIIIb.                          CTy^IHinb. 

JKUBeUIb. 

BH4Binb. 

OBX,  oaa,  oe6. 

/                                                      t 

4'fe.iaeTb.                   ciyiBTb. 

HJI1BCTX. 

Bl'uilTb. 

Mbi. 

4't.iaOMT>.                        CTyiHMTi. 

JKHBi'Ml. 

BB4UMI. 

Bu. 

4"kiaeTe.                  ciyiHTe, 

/EIIBCTe. 

BB4BT6. 

OBB,  oui. 

4'iiaiOTi.                  ciyqari. 

»BByTl. 

/ 

I  do,  &c.               I  knock,  &c. 

I  live,  &c. 

I  see,  &c. 

Ay*. 

Past  Tense. 

Imperfect    .     .     . 

4-Bjaji  -a  -o  -JB.      ciyiaji  -a  -o  -JB. 

KlUT,  -&  -6  -.111. 

BH,V!;.IX  -a  -o  -JIB. 

Perfect   .... 

CA&iarb-a-o-.iH.    nociyiaji'b  -a  -o  -JH. 

no/Ki'ui  -a  -6  -.HI. 

yBB4ajcb  -a-o  -JH. 

Perfect  of  Unity  . 

n-rxTT^rnr  »1L     o     rt     MY» 

Iterative     .    .    .    4i.ibiBaxb-a-o-.iH.          (not  used).        ;i;iiBa.ii -a-o -.111.    BH^biBaJT. -a -o -JH. 
I  did,  &c.  I  knocked,  &c.         I  lived,  &c.  I  saw,  &c. 


Future  Tense.     Imperfect  Aspect. 


Sing.  Num.     n  6y4T 


or  ciyiaTb,  or  atHTb, 

oaa^ 
OHO) 

Plur.Num.    MM  6y46Mi     -\ 

/    ?  x 

M'BJiaTb.     or  ciynaTb. 

OBB  A 
OHB 


or  ataib 


I  will  do,  &c.          I  will  knock,  Ac.       I  will  live,  &c. 


or 


or  BH4tib. 
I  will  see,  &c. 


Singular  Number. 


lural  Number. 


Future  Tense.    Perfect  Aspect. 

a  cjluaH).  nociyiy.  nosKHBy. 

nociyiHuib. 


Tbl 


noiHiicemb. 


OBI  ^ 
oaa  > 
oeo  3 


BM 

OBB 
OH* 

I  will  do,  &c. 


nociyidiT.. 
I  will  knock,  &c.       I  will  live,  &c. 


yBHHty. 


VBB4Hrb. 

I  will  see,  &c. 


Perfect  of  Unity. 

nil  ciyKHy,  -Hnib,  -HTb, 

-IIM^,  -Hie,  -yix. 

I  will  knock,  &c. 


nil 


nil 


IMPERATIVE  MOOD. 
Imperfect  Aspect. 


sing.  Number. 

4-kiaii 

CiyiH.                            /K11BH. 

nil 

nycib 

COH?)    ' 
s  Qua  /•  4'i>-iaeT'b, 

(OHO) 

or    CTyiHrb,            or     JKiiBeii, 

> 

let  him  see,  &c. 

Plur.  Number. 

4-BJafiTe 

CTyiMTe.                           HillBHTP. 

nil 

nycib 

fOBM")       ' 

or    ciyqaTX,             or     »HByTT», 

Or  BH48TI, 

do,  &c. 

knock,  &c.              live,  &c. 

let  them  see,  «fee. 

Perfect  Aspect. 

Sing.  Number. 

/ 

nociyiH.                noatHBH. 

nil 

nycib 

<  OH  a  >  C4lJ.!aeTT>, 

or    nociyqeTT,,      or    noffiHBeii. 

nil 

(ouo  3 

Plur.  Number. 

C4li.iaHTe. 

DOciyiHTe.             DoiKiiBiiie. 

nil 

nycib 

f  OI1II  *)           ' 

\      :  >  C4't.iaioT'b 
(^  0113  ) 

t    or    nociyjaTi,       or    noa;nByTT>. 

ml 

do,  &C. 

knock,  etc.                live,  &c. 

Perfect  of  Unity. 

Sing.  Number. 

m7 

ciyKHH,                           nil 

nti 

C  OHl    ~\ 

b  <  OHH     ^  CTyKHCTl. 

(OHO  3 

Plur.  Number. 

nil 

CiyKHiiTe.                        nil 

nii 

nyci 

knock,  &c. 

PARTICIPLES. 

Present  Tense. 

&•      T      f  Masc. 
Singular  \  -p. 

f 

CTyiaiqiH,                a.-iiBymiii, 

**""  \  Neut. 

•fiAA 

IftAJI 

II|O^| 

Plural     f^aSC\ 
AT     /,       K   t  em.  & 
2K*«6«r.  |  Neut> 

mie, 

nmtn 

»»W1   f\ 

j 

m'fl. 

He  who  does,  &c. 

he  who  knocks,  &c.    h«  who  lives,  &c. 

he  who  sees,  &c. 

Aspects. 

Past  Tense. 

Pei-fect  of  Unity  . 


eTyifiimiiii,  /Kiininiii,  nii,vl;iiiiiiii. 

a,  -ee,-ie,  -ia,      -aa,  -ee,  -ie,  -ia,      -aa,  -ee,  -ie,-ia» 

nr>irvaQimiiCT  nr>:i;if  imii  i<  T/OII  i-fcuriT.  .i 


M 
If  '  .  o 

Impertect    •     .     •          4^<^iniii,  ~.j  .„ , 

-aa,  -ee,-niie,  -uiia,    -aa,  -ee,-ie,  -ia,  -aa,  -ee,  -ie,  -ia,  -aa,  -ee,  -ie,-ia. 

*r  61*1 6  C  I/  •       •       *        .           C^KowlcLBIIima                  nOCTy  i&BUI  III  •  II 0  ill  II  BIO  1 H  *  V  BH/l'BBIIIi  i»  • 

-aa,  -ee,  -ie,  -ia,      -aa,  -ee,  -ie,  -ia,  -aa,  -ee,  -ie,  -ia,  -aa,  -ee,  -ie,  -ia. 

nil                    CTyKHyBiiiifl,  nil  nil. 
•aa,  -ee,  -ie,  -ia. 

f  j  . 

Iterative      .     .     .       A'BJLiuaBUiiii,              (not  used),  JKHBaBiiiUi,  liii^uBuifiniii, 

-aa,  -ee,  -ie,  -ia,  -aa,  -ee,  ie,  -ia,  -aa,  -ee,  -ie,  ia. 

he  who  did,  &c.  he  who  knocked,  &c.  he  who  lived,  &c.  he  who  saw,&c. 


All  Numbers  \ 
and  Genders.  » 

Aspects. 
Imperfect   .     . 

Perfect  .     .     . 
Pa-feet  of  Unity 


GERUND. 

Present  Tense. 
,  doing.         ciyid,  knocking. 

Past  Tense. 

C/im>.      /  \  aBT>. 

<  /         CTV4    \ 

^aBimi,  )  (aBiuH, 


living. 


seeing. 


^aBUlH,  j   L          '    t&BDft, 

,  1  VBT),       ) 

•A       cxyKH  iyBu,e,r       «*  »•*• 

having  done.        having  knocked.        having  lived.  having  seen. 


(2)  Conjugation  of  Verbs  of  the  Reflective,  Reciprocal  and  Common 
Voices : — 

Aspects.  INFINITIVE  MOOD. 

Imperfect   .    .     .      xsaJHibCfl,  cpa/Kaibca,  yjbi6aTbca. 

Perfect  ....      noxBajHibca,  cpaaHibca,  nil. 

Perfect  of  Unity .  nil.  nil.  yjwCHyTbca. 

to  praise  one's  self.       to  fight.  to  smile. 

INDICATIVE  MOOD. 
Present  Tense. 


Singular  Number.       a  xsajwcb,  cpan;aiocb, 

TbI  XBaJHIHbCfl,  Cpa/KaeilJbCff, 

ona  >  xBaJHTca,  cpaataeica, 
OHO) 

Plural  Number.        MW  XBa.in.MCH,  cpaajaemca, 

BM  xBajHTCCb,  cpamaeTecb, 

OHH  I  f 

-  >  xBajaTca,  cpa/KaiOTCflj 
I  praise  myself,  &c.       I  fight,  &c. 


yjbi6arocb. 
y.ibi6aenibca. 

yjbi6deTca. 


yjbi6aeiecb. 
yjbi6amca. 
I  smile,  &c. 


Aspects. 
Imperfect.  .     . 

Perfect  .     .     . 

Perfect  of  Unity 
Iterative.    .     . 


Past  Tense. 
XBajMJca,  cpaiKaJCfl,  yjbi6ajca, 

-JOCb,  -JHCb,    -jaCb,  -JOCb,  -JflCb,  -JaCb,  -JOCb,  -JHCb. 

noxBaJQJca,  cpasHJca,  nil. 


,  -JOCb,  -JHCb,    -JaCb,   -JOCb,  -JHCb. 

nil.  nil. 


,  -JOCb,  -JHCb. 

nil. 


XBaJHBaJCfl,     l 
-sajacb,  -sajocb,  ?•  nil. 

-BaJHCb.  J 

I  praised  myself,  &c.    I  fought,  &c.  I  smiled,  &c. 


Singular  Number. 


Plural  Number. 


Future  Tense. 
Imperfect  Aspect. 


114 

OHa  >  6y 
000  ) 

Mbl  6y46Ml, 
Bbl  6y46T6, 

OIIII 
OBl! 


I  will  praise 
myself,  &c. 


or      cpaJKaibca,     or 

I  will  fight,  &c.      I  will  smile,  &c. 


Singular  Number. 


Plural  Number. 


Perfect  of  Unity. 


Tbl 
OHl} 

oea  > 
oao) 

MM 
BU 

OIIII  I 

OB!) 


nil. 


XBa.ll!Cb, 
r'OHT)^ 
<  OHa  >     XBcUIUTCfl, 

(.ono) 


nycib 


Pniise  thyself,  &c. 


Perfect  Aspect. 

rocb,      or     cpaffiycb.        \ 


or 


or 


noxBaiHMca,    or 
noxBaJHiecb,  or     cpaautecb. 


rOHX 

nycn  <  ona 

(.  OHO 


c      '  ^ 
nycTL  j  ou|  > 


noxiia.uicb, 


Praise  thyself,  &c. 


till. 


noxBaiarca,     or     cpaaaica. 

I  will  praise  my.        I  will  fight,  &c. 

self,  &c. 

i 

nil.  nil.  a 

I  will  smile,  &c. 
IMPERATIVE  MOOD. 
Imperfect  Aspect. 

cpamafica,  yjbi6afica. 

nyctb     j  oua  >    cpaataeica,       nycib     j  OH  a  >   yjufiaexca. 
Coed)  COBO) 

cpaJKafitccb,     

nyctb    j  °H!|  i    cpaataioTCH.      nycib 


Fight  thou,  &c. 

Perfect  Aspect. 

cpaaiicb. 


Smile  thou,  &c. 


nycib    <  OHH  >    cpa3MTca. 
cpaaaiecb. 

'  *i 
^lj    cpaaaica. 

Fight  thou,  &c. 


nil. 


Perfect  of  Unity. 


nil. 

nil.                                      \         f 

nyctb  <  ona  >    yjuoneica 

(oed) 

nil. 

nUi.                               nvn 

b  |  0|J^  >    yjibiOnyTca 

Smile  thou,  &c. 

PARTICIPLE. 

Present  Tense. 

")         Masc.        t 

-XBa^amifica,     ") 

/'cpaajaiom.iaca,') 

(liuOSamnite*. 

S.™9'   (         Fern. 

n  if/  'ii         I 

\ 

<                            HJtlULM^   > 

-<             m.aaca 

'  )         Neut.        ( 

/ 

1H'XL/1  5     I 

Plur.  -i          Mate.         i 

-     jeca,      •) 

.   inpn         _? 

r     mieca,  ^ 

f                .---  ini  af*a      1 

C     m,ieca. 

>•                   mniL/ij  j 

he  who  praises 

he  who  fights,  &c. 

he  who  smiles,  &e. 

himself,  &c. 

Aspects. 

Past  Tense. 

Imperfect. 

"}         Masc.        / 

'XBcLIlIBIIlifica,     ^ 

r  cpaataBiiiifica,) 

ry,U(5aBmific«. 

Num.  T 
)          Neut.         ( 

•<      maaca. 

(      meeca.  - 

Plur.  ">          Masc. 

JM  111H,    \   Fg^ft,  fy  N"dUt» 

. 

(     mieca. 

Perfect. 

~\         Masc.       /'noxBajHBUiificai 

r  cpaauBiniflcfl.) 

/                                  ITTflP/MI      * 

>         nil. 

^  *9    J 

Plur.  ")          Masc.        ( 
Num.  ]  Fern.  &  Neut.  <• 

-                                        •                    . 

«> 

I     miaca.  ' 

Perfect  of  Unity. 

~\         Masc. 

(  yjbiOBvBiniaca 

SjTH9'   }>         Fern. 
Num.  C 
j          A/eut. 

,         A 

nil. 

j     raaaca. 
(.     •  meeca. 

Plur.  }          Masc. 

Num.  )  Fern.  &  Neut 
j 

C     mieca. 
^     miaca. 

he  who  praised 

he  who  fought,  &c. 

he  who  smiled,  &c. 

himself,  &c. 

GERUND. 

Present  Tense. 

All  Numbers'} 

XBajacb, 

cpa>Kaacb, 

y.iuo'aacb. 

and  Genders.  /            pr, 

lising  himself. 

fighting. 

smilinif 

Aspects. 

^                                  f 

Att  Numbers  \ 
and  Gender  s.J 

Past  Tense. 

Imperfect    .     .    . 

xBaJHBiiracb, 

cpa/i;aBmnci>, 

yjbltiHy'BniHCB. 

Perfect  .... 

(  nOXBn.IHBIllIICb, 

(  iioxBa.uicb, 

")               CcpaaHBHiHCb,    ") 
)              (  cpaaacb.          ) 

nil. 

Perfect  of  Unity  . 

nil. 

nil. 

yjbi(5flyBmHCb. 

having  praised 

having  fought. 

having  smiled. 

himself. 

(3)  Conjugation  of  Verbs  of  the  Passive  Voice  :— 


Aspects. 

Imperfect 
Perfect  . 
Iterative 


INFINITIVE  MOOD. 

6biTb  xBa.iii.My,  or    HarpaauaeMy, 

or    HarpajKjeHy, 


6biib 

6biBaib 

to  be  praised. 


or    nocbuaesiy. 
or 


or 


to  be  rewarded. 


or    nocwjaeMy. 
to  be  sent. 


INDICATIVE  MOOD. 

Present  Tense. 

Instead  of  the  following  antiquated  method  of  conjugating  verbs  of  the  present  tense  and 
passive  voice — fl  ecMb  or  fl  CbiBaio  xBajHMi,  or  earpa/K4aeMT>,  or  nocbiiaeM'b,  &c.,  I  am  praised, 
or  rewarded,  or  sent,  &c. — it  is  usual  to  invert  the  phraseology  so  as  to  convert  the  passive 
into  an  active  form. 


Ex.  Mena 
•re6fl 
ero,  ee 


Baci 

HXb 


Imperfect  Aspect, 


or  Harpa;KAaKm>  or  nocbuaiOTT,,  &c.,  They  praise,  or  reward, 
or  send  me,  &c. 


Pas*  Tense.     (Passive  Form.) 

Cbl.IX        XBa.IlIMb, 


or 


or    nocbuaeMi. 


6bi.ia 

(Ju.H)      xBa.ni.Mo, 

6  u.i  1 1 


or    earpaJK4aeMa,  or    nocbuaeMa. 
or    narpa>KAaeMO,  or    nocbuaejio. 

or    Harpaat^aeMbi,  or     nocbuacMbi. 


(Active  Form.) 


M6Hfl    - 
TC6fl 

erd 
ee 

eaci 

BJIC/I, 
IlX'b 


xua.in.in, 


or    earpaJKAain,     or    nocbi.iaia. 


I  was  praised,  &c.      or  rewarded,  &c.    or    sent,  Ac. 


Aspects 
Perfect  . 


Iterative 


Aspects. 
Imperfect 


Perfect 

Imperfect 
Perfect . 


MCH/1 

xefia 
ero,  ee 


(     69     ) 

(Passive  Form.) 

6t>w>        noiBa'.ieB'b,         or  narpaxAe'B'b,  or 

6bua          noxBa.iciia,         or  Barpa/n^eiia,  or    noc-iana. 

dbLio         noxBa.ieiio,          or  HarpaJK^eflo",  or    nocjaao. 

di'i.ni         noxBi'uenbi,        or  iiarpa/K^enu,  or    nocjanu. 

I  was  praised,  &c.    or  rewarded,  &c.  or    sent,  &c. 
(Active  Form.) 

or  narpaAii.iH,  or 


(Passive  Form.) 


Baci> 

liX'L 


TbI 

OBI       ) 

ona  6uu;'ija 

Ofl6          CbiBLio      XBaJUMO, 


6LiBa.iH 


or     earpaJK^aeMi,      or    noctu.lOMi. 


or    Harpaat^^eMa,      or 

or    Harpaat^^eMO,      or    nocbi.iacMO. 


or 


or    nocu.iaeMM. 


(Active  Form.) 


MCfia 
xeda 
ero,  ee 
aaci 


6WBa-          XB3JHJH, 

jio     they  praised, 


or    earpaJKAaJH,     or 

or    rewarded,        or    sent  me,  drc. 


Future  Tense. 

Instead  of  using  the  now  obsolete  form  of  fl  6y#y  XBaJHMT>,  I  will  be  praised  ; 
or  narpaJKjaeMi,  rewarded  ;  or  nocbuaemi,  sent,  &c.,  it  is  usual  to  say 
Meea  6y4yi^  XBaJHTb,  they  will  praise  ;  or  Harpaat^aib,  reward  ;  or  no- 
CbuaTb,  send  me,  &c. 

fl  6yay  noxBajeex,  or  narpaJKae'H'b,  or  nowaHX,  &c.  or  MOBS,  &c.  noxBcUaii), 
or  HarpaAHini,  or  nomji&Ti,  &c. 

IMPERATIVE  MOOD. 

nycTb  Mena  XBa.iarb,  let  me  be  praised  ;  or  Harpaac^aiOTi,  rewarded  ;  or 
nocbuaiOT'b,  sent,  &c. 

nycTb  MGH^  noxBajaii,    let  them  praise ;  or  earpa^aii,  reward  j  «»r  no- 
rorb,  send  me,  &c. 


Aspects. 


PARTICIPLE. 
Present  Tense. 


King. 
Num. 


Masc. 

Fern. 

Neut. 


Plur.  ")        Masc. 
.  ) 


Num.  )  Fem.&Neut 


he  who  is  praised,  &c.      he  who  is  re  warded,  &c.     he  who  is  sent,  &c. 


Past  Tense. 


Sing. 
Num. 

Plur. 
Num. 


Sing. 
Num. 

Plur. 
Num. 


nil. 


nil. 


he  who  was  praised,  <fcc.     he  who  was  rewarded,  &c.   he  who  was  sent,  Ac. 


AU  Numbers  ") 
and  Genders- ) 


GERUND. 
Present  Tense. 
or 


being  praised. 


rewarded. 


or    nocbuaeMi. 
sent. 


All  Numbers  ") 
and  Genders. ) 


Past  Teme. 


or 


having  been  praised. 


rewarded. 


or 


sent. 


§  121.  Conjugation  of  the  Irregular  Verbs. 

The  following1  Table  exemplifies  the   manner  of  conjugating  some 
of  the  Russian  Irregular  Verbs  :  — 


Q 
O 

O 


H 
< 

tf 

UJ 

p* 


QOO 


H 
«1 
O 

i— i 

Q 
fc 


VE  MOOD 


t& 

i"^ 


e 


i 

3 

SS 

PH* 


- 
1  § 


1g:S« 
*       iff 


8>'S    •l- 
- 


4? 
§ 


fa   S 

Din 

Pi 


0)  ^ 

* 


s     »  *  ^ 


ta  ta 

v^^ 


s 

« 


Mi    -§ 


**  *  j>       SS^^-S 

I  -g-  S  a  3  1  *  -  I  S  B  B  S  J  ^1  S  1  i 
£  Z  £  S  :i  «  a  1  1  li  1  1  1  1  1  1  |i 

-  -      2       -  S§  -o         § 


B       la 


S  »  -  .    v    .r 


.        . 
3  ^      S 

-        : 


v§  ~ 

*o    *o  /^ 

^  (S  s  -e 


t 

P-i  a 

fiOQ 


•«-* 


a 


at 


V 

PH 


Jj 

.i    0 


i  rre  s 


s  ri 


_=   >a 

H     H 
v(B  vS 

-H  a  a1 


^S 


«  t>-  00  G5  O  rn  ^  CO 


00  O5  O  1-1 


C     00 


OS 
^ 


0/w. — Of  the  irregular  verbs  inserted  in  this  Table,  only  two  are  used  in  the  Aspect 
of  the  Perfect  of  Unity,  viz.  (No.  27)  Tpacta— ipaxHyib,  and  (No.  22)  cipHib— cipHrayTb ; 
whereas  in  the  Iterative  Aspect  the  following  are  found: — (  No.  3)  B63TB,  (No.  4)  BecTH — 
BaJKHBaib,  (No.  13)  HGCTH — eaiuHBaTi,  (No.  23)  ctib — c-BKaib,  (No.  29)  tcib — *,iaib, 
(No.  30)  -Bxaib — 1>3maTb.  The  verb  MOib  (No.  12)  is  not  used  in  the  future  tense  of 
the  Imperfect  Aspect.  One  cannot,  therefore,  say  H  fiy^v  or  MLI  6y,jeMT>  MOib- 


§  122.  RULES  FOE  THE  CONJUGATION  OF  RUSSIAN  VEEBS. 

For  the  conjugation  of  Russian  Verbs  there  are  many  rules,  but 
there  are  also  a  large  number  of  exceptions  to  them.  We  will  note 
only  those  rules  which  may  be  pronounced  steadfast,  i.e.  such  as 
admit  of  the  least  number  of  exceptions. 

I.  Rules  for  the  Infinitive  Mood. 

(1)  The  infinitive   mood  of  Russian   Verbs   of  the  imperfect 
aspect  generally  ends  in  m&  preceded  by  any  of  the  vowels  a,  e,  u, 
o,  y,  w,  /&,  n.     Ex.  HHTOWb,  to  read  ;    Tepewib,  to  rub  ;    \Eduiumb,  to 
praise;  KO.IOW&,  to  prick;  tQivymb,  to   sink;  pbzwb,  to  dig;  HM/&W&, 
to  have;  3a6aBJ^m&,  to  amuse.     We  also  find  the  same  termination 
mb    preceded  by  the  consonants  3  and  c.     Ex.  .i-fcawb,  to  climb ; 
rpbiswb,  to  s-naw  ;  luecwb,  to  plait;  UBl>cwb,  to  bloom.    A  very  few 

f  *  CJ  *•  v 

verbs  have  their  infinitive  mood  in  Ub  and  mu;   such  as  BJC^b,  to 
drag;  Eftmu,  to  go  (on  foot). 

(2)  The  infinitive  mood  of  Russian  Verbs  of  the  perfect  aspect 
likewise  generally  ends  in    mb.     This   termination   has,  however, 
various  prefixes.     Some  verbs  form   their  perfect  aspect  in  a  way 
peculiar  to  themselves — 

Ex.   OTJHHaw&j       WJivmumb,  to  distinguish, 

npne/zwb,  to  receive, 

o^/fcwib,  to  dress. 

B3H?wb,  to  take. 


Others,  in  order  to  form  their  perfect  aspect,  take  as  prefixes  various 
prepositions  : 

Ex.   JLioftumb,         nojiioftumb,  to  love. 

uncdmb,         namicdfflb,  to  write. 

Others,  again,   borrow   a   perfect    aspect    from    compound    verbs 
analogous  to  themselves : 

Ex.   6epe^b,  coepe^b,  to  guard  (which  is  from 

the  verb  coeperawb). 
roioBWWb,       nmiYOTommb,      to  prepare  (which  is  from 

'  J  X  J,  \ 

the  verb  nparoTOBji^wb). 
CMOip/bWb,      rcocMOTp/btfZb,       to  behold  (which  is  from 

the  verb  riocMaipHBaTb). 

• 


(    73    ) 

(3)  The  infinitive  mood  of  verbs  of  the  aspect  of  the  perfect 
of  unity  ends  in  nymb.  Ex.  uuTHymb,  to  wink;  cmcuymb,  to 
give  a  whistle  ;  jep«y>w&,  to  give  a  pull. 

(4)  The  infinitive  mood  of  verbs  of  the  iterative  aspect  ends 
in  ueamb  and  bieamb.  Ex.  \&s&u8amby  to  be  in  the  habit  of  walking; 
vhnbieamb,  to  be  in  the  habit  o/"  seeing ;  vmieamb,  to  read  often. 

Note. — But  few  Eussian  verbs  have  the  iterative  aspect,  which 
can  in  good  style  and  conversation  be  used,  and  therefore 
this  aspect  should  be  employed  with  great  discernment. 
Verbs  ending  in  ueamb  and  bieamb  cannot  have  an 
iterative  aspect.  Ex.  pa3CMaTpM0dwz&,  to  examine ;  oftfabieamb, 
to  oblige,  &c. 

II.  Rules  for  the  Indicative  Mood. 

(1)  The  first  person  singular  number,  present  tense,  has  two 
terminations,  viz.  in  TO  and  y.     Before  the  latter  there  is  always  a 
consonant.     Ex.  Mfl,y,  I  go ;    cna«/,  I  sit  down.     The  terminations 
of  the  second  person  of  the  same  number  and  tense  are  in  ewb  and 
uwb  respectively,  and  those  of  the  third  person  of  the  same  number 
and  tense  in  emu  and  wwff.  The  terminations  of  the  first  person,  plural 
number,  present  tense,  are  eMV  and  UM$  ;  of  the  second  person  of  the 
same  number  and  tense  erne,  ume ;  of  the  third  person  of  the  same 
number  and  tense  (of  verbs  of  the  first  conjugation  only)  wwff  or  ymt. 
Thus  it  will  be  found  that  the  second  person  of  the  singular  number, 
present  tense,  of  verbs  of  the   first  conjugation   has   ewb    for   its 
termination ;  and  so  the  third  person  of  the  plural  number,  present 
tense,  of  verbs  of  this  conjugation  will  end  in  wmti  or  ymt.  Ex.  *in- 

thou  readest;  ^niaTOWB,  they  read;    zenewtb,  thou    leadest; 

,  they  lead ;  similarly  the  second  person  of  the  same  number 
and  tense  of  verbs  of  the  second  conjugation  has  uwb.  Consequently 
the  third  person  of  the  plural  number  will  be  in  am$  or 
Ex.  Momuw/b)  thou  art  silent ;  MOJHarb,  they  are  silent ; 
thou  gazest ;  CMoip/zmtf,  they  gaze.  Amongst  verbs  of  the  second 
conjugation  there  are  two  only  which  do  not  follow  this  rule,  viz., 
6feKww&,  thou  runnest ;  6fcry*B5,  they  run  (not  {ybmamv) ;  XOIIUM, 
thou  desirest ;  XOTATH&,  they  desire  (not  XOH#W&). 

(2)  Verbs  which  terminate  in  the*first  person,  singular  number, 
of  the  present  tense  in  iy>  change  i  in  the  second  and  third  persons 


(     74     ) 

singular,  and  in  the  first  and  second  persons  plural  into  OK.  Ex.  6e- 
per?/,  I  take  care,  &c.  ;  6epe#c£w&,  6epe#cem&,  6epeJK£jw&,  6epe>Kew£. 
In  the  third  person  of  the  plural  number  they  retain  the  letter  i  ; 
thus,  6epe£?/»25,  erepee?/m&,  they  watch. 

(3)  Verbs  which  terminate  in  the  first  person,  singular  number, 
of  the  present  tense  in  ay,  change  K  in  the  second  and  third  persons 
singular,  and  in  the  first  and  second  persons  plural,  into  u.  Ex.  B.ie- 
Ky,  I  attract;  VAQuewb,  EAQuemfi,  vHeueMti,  EJieueme..    In  the  third 
person  of  the  plural  number  they  retain  the  letter  K  ;  thus, 
WKymt,  they  cook. 

(4)  Monosyllabic  Verbs,  which  terminate  in  umb,  change 

in  the  first  person  singular  of  the  present  tense  into  &w.  Ex.  numb, 
to  drink  ;  mu#to,  to  sew  ;  mmb,  to  twine  ;  6i«m&,  to  beat  ;  n&/o, 
U1&/0,  B&TO,  6bW.  To  this  rule  the  verb  6pwm&,  to  shave,  is  an  ex- 
ception, as  it  makes  6p/&«>,  &c. 

(5)  The  present  tense  is  used  sometimes  in  the  sense  of  the 
future.     Ex.  aaeipa  H  iijy  BT>  ^epeBH/o,  To-morrow  I  am  going  to 
the  village. 

(6)  The   past   tense  of  verbs  of  the  imperfect  and    perfect 
aspects  terminates  in  M.     It  is  formed,  as  a  general  rule,  from  the 
infinitive  mood  of  the  imperfect  and  perfect  aspects  by  changing  m& 
into  M.    Ex.  mnamb  to  read,  HHia.15,  xorfewft  to  desire,  xorLf5;  MHW& 
to  knead,  MLi&.     When  the  infinitive  mood  terminates  in  ^&,  the 
termination  of  the  past  tense  is  generally  found  to  be  either  in  K5 
or  tti.    Ex.  BJie^S  to  attract,  B.ietf&,  6epew>  to  guard,  6epee5.    Similarly, 
when  the  infinitive  mood  terminates  in  emu,  smu,  the  termination 
of  the  past  tense  is  in  C5  or  3$.    Ex.  uecmu  to  bring,  HCCS  ; 

to  carry,  BC3&.     The  exceptions  are  :  HE^cmu  to  blossom,  and 
to  lead,  whose  past  tenses  are  uuiutf  and  Be^5  respectively. 

(7)  The  termination  of  the  past  tense  of  verbs  of  the  aspect 
of  perfect  of  unity  is  in  nyM  ;    thus,  Mnr#y?w&  to  work,   makes 


(8)  The  termination  of  the  past  tense  of  verbs  of  the  iterative 
aspect  is  in  uea,M  or  meaM.  The  past  tenses  of  both  the  perfect 
of  unity  and  iterative  aspects  are  derived  from  their  respective 
infinitive  moods  by  changing  mb  into  M  :  Ex.  xajKW0#w&,  to  make 
a  practice  of  going,  xajKMtfdU5.  Verbs  which  do  not  possess  an 
iterative  aspect  replace  the  want  of  one  by  adding  the  word 


(    75    ) 

to  the  past  tense  of  the  imperfect  aspect  :  Ex.  fl  Obiedjo 
I  used  to  meet. 

(9)  The  future  tense  of  verbs  of  the  imperfect  aspect  is  formed 
by  prefixing  the  future  tense  of  the  auxiliary  verb  fftinib  to  the 
infinitive  mood  of  the  verb  which  is  being  conjugated  :  Ex.  fl  Gyfly 
xua.iww&,  Tbi  Gy^efflb  \BcUumb,  &c.,  I  will  praise,  &c. 

(10)  The  future  tense  of  verbs  of  the  perfect  aspect  has  the 
same  terminations  as  has  the  present  tense  of  verbs  of  the  imperfect 
aspect.     Ex.   fl  /wxBcUW,  Tbi  /zoxBa.iww&,  &c.,  I  will  praise,  &c. 

(11)  The  future  tense  of  the  aspect  of  the  perfect  of  unity 
terminates  in  ny,  newb,  &c.     It  is  formed  from  the  infinitive  mood 
of  the  same  aspect   by  casting  away  the  final  letters  iw&;  thus, 

,  to  move,  makes  flBuwy,  4BHH0W&,  &c. 


III.  The  Imperative  Mood. 

(1)  As  a  general  rule,  only  two  persons  of  the   imperative 
mood  are  used,  viz.  the  2nd  and  3rd  :  Ex.  HHraw  read  (TH,  thou,  being 
understood),  nycib  OHJJ,  OHO-  or  OHO,  Hnraew&,  wrdume  (BH),  nycn>  OEU 
or  OH/&  HHiaJOWtf.    There  are  cases,  however,  in  which  the  1st  person 
may  be  used  ;  for  example,  Ey£b  ff  6orai&,  H  6bi  rcoMortf  CMy,  were 
I  rich,  I  would  assist  him.     In  the  same  way,  the  1st  person  plural 
of  the  present  or  future  tenses  of  verbs  of  the  perfect  aspect  is  used 
for  the  1st  person  plural  of  the  imperative  mood  ;  thus,  une'Mt,  kneMti, 
nouneMfi,  nokneMV,  let  us  go,  let  us  eat,  &c.     In  such  instances  the 
suffix  me  is  frequently  added  to  the  1st  person  plural  of  the  impera- 
tive mood  :  Ex.  uoftkwiuMme,  chfteMme,  let  us  run,  let  us  sit  down. 

(2)  Sometimes  the  infinitive  mood   is  used   in  place  of  the 
imperative  ;  thus,  Mo.i4am&  !  He  myM/6W6  !   Be  silent  !  Do  not  make 
a  noise  ! 

(3)  In  the  practice  of  a  high  style  of  conversation  or  writing, 
to  the  3rd  person  of  the  imperative  mood  is  added  the  particle  da  ; 
for  example,  d#  BCTynwrntf  instead  of  nyciB  OH5  BCTynwm»,let  him  enter. 

IV.  The  Participles. 

\  123.  The  active  participles  of  verbs  of  the  active  and  neuter 
voices  terminate  as  follows  :  —  The  present  participle  in  i^m,  ii^an,  i^ee, 
for  the  masc.,  fern.,  and  neut.  genders,  respectively.  This  participle 


(     76     ) 

is  derived  from  the  3rd  person,  plural  number,  present  tense,  indica- 
tive mood,  by  changing  the  final  letters  m$  into  wflu  :  Ex.  CMoipawtf, 
they  regard  ;  CMOipa^m,  &c.,  he  who  regards,  &c.  The  past  participle 
in  ewitij  euian,  eiuee,  for  the  masc.,  fern.,  and  neut.  genders,  respec- 
tively. This  participle  is  derived  from  the  singular  number,  past 
tensej  indicative  mood,  by  changing  M  into  ewiu  :  Ex.  CMOip-Jutf, 
I  regarded  ;  CMOipimm,  &c.,  he  who  regarded,  &c.  In  the  case 
of  verbs  which  have  not  the  letter  A  in  the  formation  of  their  past 
tense,  the  final  letter  &  of  that  tense  is  changed  into  wiu,  &c.  Ex. 
poctf,  he  grew;  pocwitt,  &c.,  he  who  grew,  &c.  The  past  participles 
of  the  following  verbs  are  as  follows  :  —  vecmu  to  lead,  Be^ 

,  to  go,  uiej&,  medium  ;    nwbcmu,  to  blossom,  rjBlu&, 

,  to  fall,  uaM,  u&dwiU. 


§  124.  To  the  terminations  of  the  participles  of  verbs  of  the 
reflective,  reciprocal,  and  common  voices,  the  particle  en  is  added. 
Ex.  CMOipawmcH,  he  who  regards  ;  CMOip'BBtw/MCfl,  he  who  re- 
garded ;  &c. 

§  125.  The  participles  of  verbs  of  the  passive  voice  are  derived 
only  from  verbs  of  the  active  voice.  The  present  participle  of 
verbs  of  the  passive  voice  ends  in  Mbiu.  This  participle  is  formed 
from  the  1st  person,  plural  number,  present  tense,  indicative  mood, 
of  the  active  voice,  by  changing  the  final  letter  5  into  &w,  an,  ee> 
(for  the  masc.,  fern.,  and  neut.  genders  respectively).  Ex.  XBaJHMtf, 
we  praise  ;  xfiaJHMbm,  &c.,  he  who  is  praised  ;  &c.  The  present 
passive  participles  of  the  following  verbs  form  an  exception  to  this 
rule  :  —  ucKamb,  to  seek,  ECKOMblti  ;  nacwm,  to  pasture,  nacoJit&m  ; 
Becww,  to  lead,  sedoMbiu.  The  past  participle  of  verbs  of  the  passive 
voice  ends  in  nubm  or-  mwu,  &c.  This  participle  is  formed  from  the 
singular  number,  past  tense,  indicative  mood,  active  voice,  by 
chansrin^  the  final  letters  M  of  that  tense  into  HHbiu  or  mbiU. 

DO 

Ex.  AiuaJtf,  he  made,  ukAMtHbiu,  he  who  is  made  ;  miu&,  he  sewed  ; 
w&moe,  that,  which  is  sewn;  &c.  The  following  verbs  form  ex- 
ceptions to  the  above  rule  :  —  XBajmw&,  to  praise,  x.Bai£«WWU  ;  HOCWW&, 
to  carry,  EomeHHbiu  ;  npom»^&,  to  pardon,  np6me«/f&i#  ;  3a6biBft?w&, 
to  forget,  3a6b'iw&zit  and  ttfieetMbiu. 

Obs.  —  The  present  participle  of  a  verb  of  the  passive  voice  can 
only  be  formed  by  means  of  either  of  the  two  neuter  verbs 
6biBait  and 


(     77     ) 

§  126.    In  the  Russian  language  there  are  no  other  future  par- 
ticiples than  that  of  the  verb  foimb,  viz.  ftynyujfiu  -an  -ee  -ie  -in. 


§  127.    Participles  are  declined  as  nouns  adjective. 

§  128.  Participles  of  the  passive  voice  have  both  full  and 
shortened  terminations  ;  thus,  from  the  full  forms  come  the  fol- 
lowing shortened  forms  :  yBaJKaeM&m,  -an,  -oe,  respected, 
-a  -o  j  HHiaHH&m  -an  -oe,  read,  Hniantf  -a  -o. 


§  129.  As  a  general  rule,  participles  with  full  terminations  are 
confined  to  writing  and  to  books,  whereas  in  conversation  the 
shortened  forms  of  such  participles  are  more  often  met  with.  Ex. 
#OM&  xopomo  JiocTpoens,  This  house  (is)  well  built  ;  9ra 

,  This  book  (is)  read  through  ;  HpHKasame 
The  order  .(is)  executed.  In  conversation  are  likewise  used  such 
participles  as  have  the  meaning  of  nouns  adjective  ;  for  instance, 
OHS  cyWjiii  pe6enoK&,  He  is  a  regular  child  ;  panenbiM  o<i>Hijep&,  a 
wounded  officer  ;  Henpoxo^zui&zw  jfcctf,  an  impenetrable  forest  ;  &c. 


V.  Gerunds. 

\  130.  Gerunds  of  the  present  tense  of  verbs  of  the  active  and 
neuter  voices  end  in  a,  H,  or  ynu  and  TOHU.     Ex.  CTVH&  knocking, 
sitting,  HHia/j  or  ^EISHOUU  reading,  uzuiyuu  writing. 


^  131.  The  gerunds  of  the  past  tense  of  such  verbs  end  in  eft  or 

'  '  . 

emu.     Ex.  ciuitftf,  cmxbEwu,  having  sat,  &c. 


§  132.  The  first  noted  terminations  of  gerunds  of  either  of  the 
above  tenses  (those  in  a,  a,  8$)  are  shortened,  whereas  those  last 
noted  (in  yuu,  wuu,  emu)  are  full.  The  former  are  used  in  ordinary 
writing  and  in  conversation,  the  latter  in  less  refined  language,  or 
in  the  vulgar  tongue. 

§  133.  The  gerunds  of  the  present  tense,  like  the  participles  of 
the  same  tense,  are  formed  from  the  3rd  person,  plural  number, 
present  tense,  indicative  mood,  of  the  verb,  by  changing  amv  into  a, 
and  wntiiymti  and  wmti  into  a.  Ex.  MQJwdmtf  they  are  silent,  MOjqa  ; 
x6^w&,  they  go,  xo#/j;  BeAywff,  they  lead,  se^;  JKCJa/omff,  they 
wish,  JKC.IEU. 

§  134.  The  gerunds  of  the  past   tense  are   formed   from   past 


(    78    ) 

participles  by  changing  the  termination  ewiti  into  ULU  or  69.  Ex. 
MO-iHaflwm,  MQJL^iaewu,  M0.i4a0ff,  having  been  silent  ;  Hanucaewiu,  or 
Hanmcaewu,  having  written. 

§  135.  In  the  case  of  verbs  of  the  reflective,  reciprocal,  and 
common  voices,  the  particles  Cb  and  en  are  respectively  added  to 
the  shortened  form  of  gerunds  of  the  present  tense,  and  to  the  full 
forms  of  gerunds  of  the  past  tense.  Ex.  npanact,  hiding, 
cnpaiaffwrnct,  having  hidden,  &c. 

§  136.  To  gerunds  of  the  present  tense,  passive  force  (which  are 
but  seldom  used)  is  prefixed  the  future  gerund  of  the  auxiliary 
verb  6bimb  :  Ex.  6ydyuu  xsajHM5,  being  praised.  In  like  manner, 
to  gerunds  of  the  past  tense,  passive  voice,  the  gerund  of  the  past 
tense  of  the  same  verb  is  prefixed  :  Ex.  6bW6  XBaieH5  or  /zoxBadCHtf, 
having  been  praised. 

§  137.  Gerunds  have  sometimes  the  meanings  of  adverbs.  Ex. 
OHS  umiuemv  cmon,  he  writes  standing,  &c.  Gerunds  of  this  kind 
are  called  verbal  adverbs  (oirjarojLHoe 


THE   ADVERB. 

§  138.  An  Adverb  is  generally  used  with  a  Verb,  in  order  to 
show  the  quality,  circumstances,  and  mode  of  action.  Ex.  H  man. 
miixo,  I  weni  quietly  ;  OHS  /TjoorpHBavicfl  euepd  eepxoMV,  He  went 
out  yesterday  on  horseback.  Certain  adverbs  are  also  placed  before 
other  parts  of  speech  :  —  (a)  Examples  of  those  preceding  nouns 
substantive  :  MHMO  ipyfloffff,  many  labours  ;  HWCKOMKO  coJAai5, 
several  soldiers;  esaMibtifi  nenetz,  in  lieu  of  money  ;  eMibcmo  KHHF&,  in 
place  of  books.  —  (b]  Examples  of  those  preceding  nouns  adjective: 
OH&  6ueii9  npHjeffieHS,  he  is  very  industrious;  eecbmd  uoAesRaa 
KHHH&,  an  exceedingly  useful  book.  —  (c)  Examples  of  adverbs  coupled 
with  others,  in  order  to  intensify  the  meaning  which  it  is  desired 
should  be  conveyed  :  eecbMa  xopoino,  exceedingly  good  ;  ouenb 
6.1H3KO,  very  near  ;  lopdsdo  panie,  much  earlier  ;  e#0a  npHM^THO, 
scarcely  perceptible. 

^139.  According  to  their  respective  significations,  adverbs  are 
classed  as  follows  :  — 

(1)  Adverbs  of  Quality:  —  These  denote  the  quality  or  mode 
of  action,  in  answer  to  the  questions  mud  ?  how  ?   E&RUJW  66pa30.M&  / 


(    79    ) 

in  what  manner?  Ex.  fl  nposoray  (from  npOBOHtt)aw&)  Bpe.M/z  xopomo, 
I  pass  time  well  ;  Tbi  Bee  nkji&ewb  KaKi»  Hn6yvjb,  Thou  doest  every- 
thing anyhow  ;  OHS  JK)6HT5  npory.!HBam&ca  rrfcuiKOM'b,  He  likes  to 
take  his  exercise  on  foot  j  &c. 

(2)  Adverbs  of  Quantity:  —  (a)    Answering  to   the  question, 
CKO.IBKO?   how  much?    how  many?    Ex.  MBOFO,   MOJO,  nicKOJbKO, 
OAHaiKAbi,  &c.  —  (6)   Answering  to  the  question,  BO-CKOJBKO?   how 
many   times  ?      Ans.    BflBoe    two-fold,     Bnaxepo    five-fold,    &c.  — 
(c)  Answering  to  the  question,  Ha-CKOJtKO  ?   into  how  many  times  ? 
Ans.  Ha-ABoe  in  two,  Ha-neiBepo,  into  four,  &c. 

(3)  Adverbs  of  Place  :  —  These  answer  to  the  questions  —  idn  ? 
where  ?     Kydd  ?    whither  ?     oxity^a  ?    whence  ?   from   what   place  ? 
Answers  :   BA^CB  here,  Tyrb  here  or  there,  iaMT>  there,  Bea^i  every- 
where,   HHr#B  nowhere,    r^-HHSy^b  somewhere  or  other,    Aoiua  at 
home,  Ty#a  thither,   cio^a  hither,  flOMOH  homewards,  oiiy^a  thence, 
oicib^a  hence,    HS^a-in   from  afar,   CHapy?KH  from  without.     To  this 
class  of  adverbs  belong  also  certain  nouns  substantive,  used  in  the 
instrumental  case,  that  is,  when  such  signify  the  way  by  which  one 
travels  :  OH&  rfexa^5  MopeMB  n  floporow  3«xBOp£U&,  He  went  by  sea, 
and  fell  ill  on  the  road. 


(4)  Adverbs  of  Time  :  —  These  answer  to  the  question, 
when?     Answers:    cero^na    to-day,    aafiipa   to-morrow,    Hb'mii   at 
present,  411^5  by  day,  HOHBTO  by  night,  npejK^e  before,  nocit  after, 
Hacio  often,  piyjKO  seldom,   paHO  early,  noa^HO  late,  &c.     To  this 
class    of    adverbs    belong    also    yiKe'    already,    eme    still,   again, 
Bee  always,  &c. 

(5)  Adoerbs    of   Precedence,    such    as    cnepfia1  first,  at   first, 
cnaHaia  first,  at  first  sight,  cnoBa  anew^  onaib  again,  BO-nepB6?o?5, 
firstly,  BO-BTOp&z#&  secondly,  &c. 

(6)  Adverbs   of  Intensity  and  Augmentation,    such  as  BecbMa 
extremely,  onenb,  ropaaAO  much,  oiHfflKOMb  too  much,  Kpafine  to  the 
utmost,  &c. 

(7)  Adverbs   denoting    diminution    or   decrease,    such   as   epa 

scarcely,  Hyib  hardly,  Haciby  with  difiiculty,   DOHTH  almost,  &c. 

• 

(8)  Adverbs  denoting  sufficiency  :  AOBOJbHO  enough,  DOJHO  fully, 
that  will  do,  enough,  &c. 

(9)  Interrogative   Adverbs,   such   as   Kor^a?  when? 


(     80    } 

why  ?  4.ia  wio  ?  for  what  ?  r^t  ?  where  ?  Kyfla  ?  whither  ? 
is  it  possible  ?  indeed  !  &c. 

(10)  Affirmative   Adverbs,    such    as    no&iHHHO   really,   indeed, 
HCTUHHO  verily,    BT»  caMOJW5  iiji/6  in  fact,    ia  yes,   TaKt  so,    4'BficTBH- 

V      *  „  J  V  * 

T6.IBHO  actually,    KOHCIHO  of  course,  &c. 

(11)  Negative  Adverbs,  such  as  HC  no,  flirt  not,  He  lain*  not  so, 
HHKaKt  by  no  means,   HHMajo  not  at  all,  HHCKOJLBKO  not  any,  OTHIO^B 

./  f     7  J    J 

by  no  means,  coBci>Mi>  He  and  BOBCC  He  not  at  all,  &c. 

(12)  Hypothetical  Adverbs,  such  as   no-KpaHH£M  Mi»p/&  at  least, 
asocB  it  is  to  be  hoped,    MyiB-JH   scarcely,     Bp^i-JH   it  is  doubtful 
whether,    MOJKeT&-6BiT&  perhaps,  &c. 

(13)  Exclusive  Adverbs,  such  as    TOKMO,  TOJBKO  and  J.HHIB  only, 
e^HHCTBCHHO  solely,   KpoMt  besides,  &c. 

(14)  'Adverbs  of  Comparison,  such  as    noAo6flO  like,    HapaBES 
on  a  level,    iaKWJW&  66pa30Jt5  in  this  manner,  &c. 

(15)  Adverbs  denoting  disparity  or  dissimilitude,  such  as    nnaqe 
otherwise,    HanpoTMBT,  on  the  contrary,    Ha-o6oporB  vice-versa,  &c. 

(16)  Adverbs  denoting  partnership,    such  as  BATBCT'B   together, 
B0o6m.e  in  general,  generally,  aa-o^no  jointly,  &c. 

(17)  Adverbs   denoting  exchange,    such  as   BM"BCTO   instead  of, 
B3aMi>H&,  in  lieu  of,  &c. 

(18)  Adverbs  of  illustration,  such  as  HMCHHO  namely,  TO  CCTB 
that  is,    KaKT>-TO  as  follows,    nanpHMiptf  for  example,  &c. 

(19)  Adverbs  denoting  suddenness  of  action,  such  as  HeB3HaTiaH 
unawares,    BHesanHO  unexpectedly,    BApyn>  all  at  once,     MrnoBeHHO 
instantaneously,   He^aflHHO  unexpectedly,  &c. 

(20)  Enclitical  Adverbs  employed  in  popular   speech,  such  as 
MO.IT.  then,   46  said  he,   4ecKaiB  so  to  say,  GHIHB  then,  &c. 

§  140.  All  Adverbs,  except  the  qualifying  (KanecTBeHHOe?),  and 
adverbs  of  quantity  (KO.iii4ecTBeHH0e),  are  called  circumstantial  (06- 
CTO/iTe.itCTBeHHO^)  adverbs. 

§  141.  Adverbs  denoting  quality,  which  are  derived  from  qua- 
lifying nouns  adjective,  have  degrees  of  comparison,  as,  for  example, 
xopoino  good,  jymue  better ;  Bece^o  joyous,  Beceiie  more  joyous,  Bctxi, 
Bece^ie  merrier  than  all.  Certain  of  the  adverbs,  too,  which  denote 


(    81     ) 

quantity,  place,  and  time,  have  likewise  degrees  of  comparison,  such 
as  MEorc  much,  66,ii>e  more,  66.i^e  ocixi  more  than  all,  SJHSKO  near, 
(Lii'iiKe  nearer,  BC^XT.  SJHJKC  nearer  than  all,  paHO  early,  paste  earlier, 
Bci»XT»  paflie  earlier  than  all. 


THE  PREPOSITION. 

§>  142  Prepositions  indicate  the  relationship  between  objects.  Ex. 
<&M  sa  CTO.I&,  the  pupil  sat  down  at  the  table.  Prepositions 
likewise  serve  to  alter  the  meaning  of  the  words  to  which  they  are 
prefixed :  Ex.  do-xo^s  income,  revenue,  #-xo£5  departure,  npu-\6j(6 
arrival,  eoc-xow  ascent,  Jiepe&kaxmt  to  alter,  paSMkuamb  to  ex- 
change. 

^  143.  Prepositions  are  classed  as  separable  and  inseparable. 

§  144.  The  separable  prepositions  require  after  them  the  oblique 
cases  noted  below  : — 

(1)  Genitive:     6e3i>,  Geao  without,    £ja  for,   pa^H  for  the  sake 
of,   40  up  to,    list  out  of,   OTL  a  way  from,   y  at,    H3i>-3a 
from  behind,     H3i>-noAT>  from  under. 

(2)  Dative:   KT.,  KO  to,  towards. 

(3)  Accusative  :   npo  concerning,  Hpe3i>,  Hepesi  through,  across. 

CKB03b  through. 

(4)  Instrumental :  na^t,  Ha^o  over. 

(5)  Prepositional :  npa  near,  in  the  presence  of. 

(6)  Genitive  or  Instrumental :  M&Kyjy,  Me/Ki  between,  among. 

,          (7)  Accusative  or  Instrumental:  sa  behind  or  for,    no^t under, 
at,   npe^T),  nepe^i  before. 

(8)  Accusative  or  Prepositional:  BT»,  BO  in,  into,     Ha  on,  upon, 

against,    o,  o6i>;  060  about. 

(9)  Genitive,   Accusative  or  Instrumental :    ci,  co  from,  with, 
together  with. 

(10)  Dative ,  Accusative  or  Prepositional:  no  by,  up  to,  after. 

§  145.  Amongst  the  class  of  separable  prepositions  may  be 
reckoned  also  certain  adverbs  of  place  which  govern  the  genitive  case. 
Ex.  6^H3T>  near  to,  Bos-ii  beside,  no^i  along,  near,  OKOJO  about, 
np6iHBT>  opposite  to,  MHMO  by,  cpe^a  in  the  midst  of,  snepe^H  in 
front  of,  nosaAH  behind. 

G 


(     82     ) 

§  146.  The  inseparable  prepositions  are  BOS,  Bbi,  HHS,  nepe,  npe 
and  pas.  They  do  not  alter  the  cases  of  the  nouns  which  follow 
them,  but  they  change  the  meaning  of  the  word  to  which  they  are 
prefixed  :  Ex.  ro^HbiH  suitable,  8bfao&HbiU  profitable,  M-fena  ex- 
change, nepevAna  alteration,  cipoHTL  to  build,  pascTponmb  to 


THE  CONJUNCTION. 

§  147.  A  conjunction  serves  to  connect  either  words  or  whole 
sentences.  Ex.  HsaHS  u  IIeTp5  npniiuit,  John  and  Peter  came ; 
EC.IH  a  6f  Ay  3AOpOB5  mo  npi'kty  KT,  Baivn>,  If  I  am  well,  then  I  will 
come  to  you ;  OH&  ujiu  He  \6uemv  ujiu  He  uooKemti  nOMo^b  MH/&,  He 
either  does  not  wish  to,  or  cannot,  help  me. 

§  148.  Conjunctions  are  divided  into  the  following:  — 

(1)  Copulative   (coeAHHiiTeJbHbm),  such  as  H  and,    #aJKe  even, 
npHTOMi  with  this,   HC  TOKMO  and  ne  TOJbKO  not  only,   CBepxT>-TOr6 
besides  which,   Taione  likewise,   JKC  but,  &c. 

(2)  Partitive  (pasA'B.iiiTe.ibHbn'O  :    HJH  and  .laCk)  or,  &c. 

(3)  Explanatory  (H3T>acHHTe.ibHbm)  :  HTothat,  6y^TO  as  if,  B-BA'I. 
then,  now  you  must  know,     Tor^a  KaKT>  whilst,     TaKT>  4TO  so  that, 
TaKi)  itairL  as,  &c. 

(4)  Reiterative  (noBTOpHT&ibH&m) :  HH-HH  neither — nor, 
and  OT4acTH  partly,     TO-TO  now — then,  &c. 

(5)  Comparative    (cpaBiiHTe^bflbrw) :    KaKT> — Tain>  as — so, 

cmib  as  much — so  much,    HeJKe.in  than,    4iMi> — T^MI  the  more — * 
the  less,   Taia-JKe — KaKT>  both — and,  &c. 

(6)  Conditional  (yoioBH&m)   or  Suppositional  (npeAnoJOJKHieJb- 
Ebitt)  :     eateJiH,  ec,ia   if,     4To6i>i  in  order  to,     ^a6bi  in  order  that, 
Kor^a  6bi  whenever,   TO  6bi  in  order  that,   TO  then,  therefore,  &c. 

(7)  Concessional  (yCTynfrreJbB&fu)  :  XOTS  although,  nycTL  be  it 
so,    nycKau  so  be  it,    noJKajyfl  if  you  like,  &c. 

(8)  Causal  (BHHOCj6BHWu) :  H6o  for,   £ia  Toro  4TO  for  the  reason 
that,  because,    DOTOMy  HTO  because,  &c. 

(9)  Antithetical    (npOTHBonoj6?KHbtM)  :    HO   but,     OAflaKO  how- 
ever,   BnpoieMi.  furthermore,  a  but,  &c. 


(     83     ) 


(10)  Conclusive  (aaiuiOHHTe.ibiifcw)  :  main,  thus,  HOCCM^  for  this 
reason,  Git^OBaieabHO  a  nd  ciaio  6biib  consequently,  naKOue  at  finally, 
at  last,  &c. 

To  the  class  of  disjunctive  conjunctions  belongs  likewise  the 
particle  *JM,  which  is  affixed  to  a  word  in  order  to  express  a  question. 
Ex.  EbUM  AU  Bbi  BT>  MOCKB/&  ?  Have  you  been  in  Moscow  ?  Tow&  Ju 
mo  40MT>  ?  /*  that  the  house  ? 


THE  INTERJECTION. 

^  149.  Interjections   are  exclamations1  which    serve    to  express 
various  feelings. 

^  150.  Their  classification  is  as  follows: — 

(1)  of  surprise  :  a  !  axi> !  axifi  !  6a !  6a  !  ofi-JH  !  is  it  possible ! 

(2)  of  approval :  afi-ja  !  Hcnojaib  !  hail  !  TO-TO  ?  6paeo  ! 

(3)  of  joy:  ypa ! 

(4)  of  assurance :  en-efi  !  npaso  !  right ! 

(5)  of  call :  afi  !  reft  ! 

(6)  the  answer  to  a  call :  a  !  acs  !  HTO  !  ay  1 

(7)  of  laughter:  xa !  xa  !  XH  !  XH  ! 

(8)  of  indignation  :  TM>y  !  oyfi  ! 

(9)  of  incitement :  ny  !  ny-ie ! 

(10)  those  which  imply  a  proposal :  "Ha!  Ha-ie! 

(11)  of  fear  :  OH  !  axiw  ! 

(12)  of  threat :  van* !  BOTL  !  jo6po  ! 

(13)  of  reproach  :  3  !  ax't 

(14)  of  prohibition :  TCT>! 

(15)  of  sorrow  and  commiseration  :  oxt!  yBbi ! 

(16)  of  indication :  BOTL  !  BOHT>  ! 

§  151.  Interjections  likewise  serve  to  express   various   sounds. 
Ex.  6yxi> !  naBT, !  xjont ! 


1  As  such  exclamations  are,  for  the  most  part,  mere  sounds,   they  cannot  well  be 
represented  in  every  instance  in  another  language.     Trans. 


SECOND   PART 

Biopoe). 


SYNTAX. 

§  1 52.  Syntax  expounds  the  rules  for  employing  words  so  as  to 
form  intelligible  speech. 

§  153.  Speech  is  the  expression  of  our  thoughts  by  means  of 
words. 

§  154.  A  short  sentence  expressed  in  words  is  called  &  proposition 
(npe^oiKenie).     Ex.  ^jKopbiciie  ecib  Ao6pOAi>reJb,  disinterestedness 
*is  (a)  virtue ;  ropjocib  nopoKt,  pride  (is  a)  vice ;  OHH  oyflyrb  6oraibi, 
they  will  be  rich  ;  &c. 

§  155.  The  proposition  consists  of  two  principal  parts — the 
subject  (noA.iejKaiH.ee)  and  the  predicate  (CK^QMOG)  . 

(1 )  The  subject  is  any  or  everything  spoken  of  in  the  propo- 
sition ;  such,  for  example,  as  has  been  indicated  above  in  §  154,  viz. 
6e3KopbicTie,  ropAocib,  OHH. 

(2)  The  predicate  is  all  that  speaks  of  the  subject ;  thus,  in 
the  same  examples,  Ao6pOAi>Te.ib,  nopoKt,  Soraibi. 

§  156.  The  subject  and  the  predicate  are  sometimes  joined  by  the 
verb  6biT&,  to  be,  as  is  seen  in  the  examples  given  in  §  154.  The 
verb  6biT&  in  the  forms  of  its  present  tense  is,  as  a  rule,  omitted ; 
thus,  ropAOdb  nopoia,  pride  (is  a)  vice ;  H  Gi^em,,1  I  (am)  poor ; 
OHT>  6orarb,2  he  (is)  rich. 

§  157.  The  subject  is,  generally  speaking,  a  noun  in  the  nominative 
case.  Ex.  JLfbmo  npomjo,3  Summer  has  past;  Tynu  saKpbUH  co 


1  Abbreviated  form  of  Ot^nLifl.     Trans. 

2  Abbreviated  form  of  GoraTbiU.     Trans. 

a  Neuter  form  of  the  adjective  npdui.iuB.     Tram. 


(     85    ) 

Clouds  hid  the  sun  ;  &c.  Other  parts  of  speech  may,  however,  take 
the  place  of  a  noun  substantive  as  the  subject.  These  are  :  —  (a)  a 
noun  adjective  or  a  participle  :  Ex.  UoMsnoe  npe^noMHTaeicfl  npiai- 
HOMV,  The  useful  is  preferable  to  the  agreeable  ;  jnuuebiu  He  3awB- 
qaert,  HTO  OAHO  mcmokiqee  npHHaAJercfirt  naMi>,  The  idle  (man)  does 
not  perceive  that  the  present  alone  belongs  to  us.  —  (b)  Nouns 
numeral  :  Ex.  Taint  mbicnnu  naiii  3a  OTMHSHV,  There  thousands  fell  for 
fatherland  ;  &c.  —  (c)  Pronouns  :  Ex.  ff  iiHffly,  /  write;  Bmomz  npn-  . 
jejKe«<5  a  mom$  Jiknhez,  This  one  (is)  diligent,  but  that  one  (is) 
lazy  ;  &c.  —  (d)  Verbs  in  the  infinitive  mood  :  Ex.  /fri>Jiami>  Apyrii.r5 
c*mcT.iHBi>i.MM  ecib  BeJHHaniuee  CHaciie,  To  make  others  happy  is  the 
greatest  happiness;  &c.  —  (e)  -Adverbs  denoting  time  and  place: 
CetoditH  TCILIO,  It  is  warm  to-day  •  adrtcb  Bece.io,  a  maMt  cKyiHO,  Here 
(it)  is  cheerful,  but  there  (it)  is  dull.  Adverbs  of  quantity  may  also 
represent  the  subject  :  Ex.  Mnoto  norfiftio  H  MCLAO  cnac^ocfc,  Many 
perished,  and  few  were  saved.  —  (/)  In  a  few  cases  interjections: 
Ex.  IIporpeMtjo  ypd!  There  thundered  forth  hurrah!  Pa3£aj6c& 
tipdeo  !  Bravo  resounded  ! 

§  158.  The  predicate  may  be  —  (a)  A  noun  substantive  in  the 
nominative  case  :  Ex.  CKVK&  CCT&  Gojimm  npa3£«w#5  Jiwueu,  Weari- 
ness is  the  ailment  of  idle  people;  &c.  —  (b)  A  noun  adjective  or  a 
participle,  with  a  shortened  termination  :  Ex.  Barai,  oneKynt  ojibimeuz 
M  uecmewf,  Your  guardian  (is)  experienced  and  honest  ;  &c.  —  (c)  A 
verb  in  the  indicative  or  imperative  mood  :  Ex.  OHT>  numaemti,  He 
reads  ;  HoMotu  BaJHS  Bort,  God  help  you;  &c.  —  (d)  An  adverb  of 
quality  :  Ex.  /Knib  BT>  TIeTep6ypr/6  npiAmuo,  HO  oqent  dopoio,  To 
live  in  St.  Petersburgh  (is)  agreeable,  but  very  expensive. 

Obs.  —  In  a  few  cases  a  pronoun  may  take   the  place  of  the 
predicate.     Ex.  fl  He  mbi,  I  (am)  not  thou  j  &c. 


§  159.  The  subject  and  the  predicate  are  called  the  principal 
parts  or  elements  of  the  proposition,  to  which  are  joined  the  other 
and  secondary  parts  that  serve  to  illustrate  and  amplify  the  principal 
parts.  The  secondary  parts  consist  of  the  complement,  the  definition, 
and  the  circumstantial  words. 

§  160.  The  complement  (flono.iflHTeJi>H00)  illustrates  or  adds  to 
the  signification  of  the  subject  and  of  the  predicate.  It  may  be  — 
(a)  A  noun  substantive  in  any  of  the  oblique  cases  :  Ex.  OHT> 
H  nntiie,  He  loves  music  and  singing  ;  &c.  —  (d)  An 


(    86    ) 

adjective  or  a  participle  when  either  of  these  parts  of  speech  stands 
in  the  place  of  a  noun  substantive  :  Ex.  OHI  jK&itert  tonuMaio  H  cjid- 
6aio,  He  pities  the  persecuted  (one)  and  the  weak;  &c.  —  (c)  A  per- 
sonal pronoun,  in  any  of  the  oblique  cases,  and  a  reflective  pronoun  : 
Ex.  Mw  0}KH££U!M  TC0V,  We  have  expected  thee  ;  OHT>  AyMaert  o  ce6n>, 
He  thinks  of  himself.  —  (d)  A  verb  in  the  infinitive  inood  :  Ex. 
OH&  jiboHia  uumdmb,  He  likes  to  read  ;  &c. 


•  §  161.  The  definition  (onpe^iHTeJBHO^)  points  to  the  quality  or 
to  any  of  the  attributes,  both  of  the  subject  and  of  the  predicate, 
as  well  as  of  the  complement.  The  definition  may  be  either  an 
adjective  or  numeral,  or  a  pronoun  (except  a  personal,  relative, 
and  reflective).  The  definition  answers  to  the  question  KaKoa? 
of  what  kind?  HGH?  whose?  KOTopwfl  ?  which?  cKOJbKO?  how 
much  ?  how  many  ?  Ex.  3a  ecw  9my  odmupnyw  ycaAi>6y  mwt  60- 
^dmblu  coci>AT>  3aiuaTH.n»  cmo  mwcHUZ  py6.ien,  For  all  this  vast  farm 
our  rich  neighbour  paid  a  hundred  thousand  roubles  ;  &c. 

§  162.  Circumstantial  words  (o6cTOflTejLCTBenH&w  CJOB«)  are  ex- 
pressed by  the  various  parts  of  speech  in  the  proposition  which  indicate 
place  ,  time,  mode,  and  cause  or  object  of  the  action  :  —  (a)  To  indicate  the 
place  of  action  the  following  questions  serve  :  rjfc  ?  where  ?  Ky/ja  ? 
whither  ?  OTKy^a  ?  whence  ?  Ex.  OH&  6&u&  BI  J%JK/&  H  BHAluff 
maM9  nany,  He  was  in  Rome,  and  /^er^  saw  the  Pope  ;  &c.  —  (o)  To 
indicate  the  time  of  action  there  are  the  interrogatives 
when?  Kara?  how?  ^o^ro-^w?  how  long?  Ex.  Ha 
OH&  3aHfli5  6bUi>  moicdbiu  dem  cs  ywjoo,  ^o  eeuepa,  During  the  holidays 
he  was  occupied  each  day  from  morning  till  evening.  —  (c)  To  indicate 
the  mode  of  action  the  questions  are  Ham,  ?  how  ?  KaKiuwtf  66pa30JW&  ? 
in  what  manner  ?  Ex.  OH&  TpyAoica  neymoMuMO,  He  labours  j»- 
defatigably.  —  (^?)  To  indicate  the  cause  or  object  of  the  action,  the 
questions  are  no^eM^  ?  why  ?  4Jfl  nezo  ?  for  what  ?  aaniMt  ?  why  ? 
OTHero?  from  which  cause?  Ex.  Bet  Boopy>K0.iHC&  &j;z  saiqumbi 
,  All  have  armed  themselves  for  the  defence  of  fatherland. 
06s.  —  From  the  examples  here  adduced  it  is  apparent  that 
nouns  substantive  are  used  in  the  oblique  cases,  both  as 
circumstantial  words  as  well  as  complements.  The  dif- 
ference consists  in  this,  that  the  latter  class  of  words  answer 
to  the  questions  Koro  ?  Hero  ?  KOMy  ?  K^MT.  ?  &c.  ;  whilst 
the  former  correspond  with  the  interrogative  adverbs 
KOivia?  noHCMy?  &c. 


(     87     ) 

§  163.  Nouns  substantive  coupled  with  adjectives,  when  found 
separately  in  the  proposition,  and  serving  to  illustrate  another  sub- 
stantive, are  said  to  be  in  apposition.  Ex.  HeTepSyprb,  eeMiKOdnnnan 
cmo.im^a  Pocciu,  ocHoBang  IleTpoJMS  B&IHKHJWS,  St.  Petersburgh,  the 
magnificent  capital  of  Russia,  (was)  founded  by  Peter  the  Great  ;  &c. 

§  164.  Appositions  (npHJOHfem'e)  likewise  have  their  own  com- 
plements and  definitions,  as  is  apparent  from  the  preceding  example  : 

Pocciu. 


§  165  A  proper  noun,  or  an  appellative  noun,  may  also  be  used 
as  an  apposition.  Ex.  E(api>  loanm,  Tsar  John  ;  Pfcua  AMypt,  River 
Amoor  ;  &c. 

§  166.  Address  expressed  by  the  vocative  case  is  sometimes  found 
in  the  beginning,  middle,  or  end  of  a  proposition  :  Ex.  fl  OHJH^aio 
ie6a,  Aw6e3Hbiu  dpytz,  I  expect  thee,  dear  friend.  Introductory  words, 
such  as  Cjidea  Boty,  Glory  to  God  ;  Kawemcfl,  it  seems  ;  MO  OK  ems 
6\)imby  perhaps,  &c.,  are  likewise  inserted  :  Ex.  Bw,  Kdwemcfi,  ycia./m, 
It  seems  you  are  tired.  Neither  the  address  nor  the  introductory 
words  enter  into  the  composition  of  the  proposition,  and  can  be 
omitted  without  interfering  with  its  sense. 

§  167.  The  principal  parts  of  the  proposition  can  also  be  omitted. 
In  that  case  the  subject  or  the  predicate  will  be  understood. 
Ex.  Xowy  no  UOAHMZ  H  nad^wddio  3a  pa66xa.Mw,  /  walk  along  the 
fields  and  look  after  the  works.  Here  there  are  expressed  the 
predicates  alone,  the  subject  fi  being  in  each  case  understood. 

§  168.  With  impersonal  verbs  the  predicate  is  in  every  case 
expressed  without  the  subject  or  a  person  ;  hence  the  proposition 
itself  is  said  to  be  impersonal:  Ex.  Moposumz,  it  freezes  ;  efbpumcn, 
one  believes  ;  &c. 

%  169.  Propositions,  according  to  their  construction,  are  simple  or 
compound.  A  simple  proposition  is  confined  to  one  sentence  onlu, 
and  consists  of  but  one  subject  and  one  predicate  :  Ex.  ffadejtcda 
ycjaoicddemz  JKUSHB  namy,  Hope  ctiarms  our  life.  A  compound  pro- 
position embraces  two  or  more  sentences,  and  is  therefore  made  up  of 
two  or  more  propositions  :  Ex.  Hadeotcda  yc^awddemG  JKH3H&  Haiiiy, 
Menmbi  yKpawdwmti  ee,  a  cmpdcmu  coKpaiqdjomv,  Hope  charms  our  life, 
dreams  embellish  it,  and  passions  shorten  (it)  ;  &c. 


(    88    ) 

§  170.  Propositions,  according1  to  their  signification,  may  be 
principal,  subordinate,  and  introductory. 

(1)  A  principal  proposition  comprises  some  main  idea,  has  its 
own  separate  senee,  and  does  not  depend  on  any  other  proposition  : 
Eir.  Moil  Gpamfi,  KOiopbiii  He^aeno  npOHSBCAent  BT>  o$nn.ep&i,  omnpd- 
6UMH  ez  noxodz,  My  brother,  who  not  long  ago  was  promoted  to 
(be)  an  officer,  has  set  out  for  a  campaign  ;  &c. 

(2)  A  subordinate  proposition,  on  the  other  hand,  depends  on 
the  principal  proposition,  which  it  illustrates,  and  may  be  joined 
both  to  the  subject  and  to  the  predicate :    not  so  complements, 
definitions   and  circumstantial  words.     For  instance,  in  the  pre- 
ceding  example,   the   subordinate    proposition   is    joined    to   the 
subject.     Subordinate  are  coupled  with  main  propositions  by  means 
of  grammatical  parts  of  speech,  viz.  relative  pronouns,  verbs  in  the 
form  of  participles  and  gerunds,  adverbs  of  time  and  place,  and 
conjunctions. 

(3)  An  introductory  proposition  is  not  connected  either  with 
a  main  or  subordinate  proposition,  and    may  be  omitted  without 
upsetting  the  sense  of  the  passage  in  which  it  occurs.     Ex.  Bbi, 
H  dyMaw,  ctfopo  KOHHHie  fli-io,  You,  /  think,  will  soon  finish  (your) 
business.      An    introductory  .proposition  cannot  be  placed  at   the 
beginning  of  a  sentence :  if  it  is  so  placed  it  becomes  the  principal, 
and  what  was  the  principal  is  turned  into  the  subordinate  pro- 
position ;  thus,  tt dyMaio  HTO  BBI  CKopo  KOHHHie  A^O.    Here  H  dyMaw 
has  become  the  main  proposition,  and  the  rest  of  the  sentence  has 
been  turned  into  a  subordinate  proposition. 

§  171.  To  a  principal  or  to  a  subordinate  proposition  is  sometimes 
joined  a  quoted  proposition,  comprising  some  lengthy  passage  intro- 
duced without  change :  Ex.  HMnepaiopff  A^eKcaH^p5  I.  CKaaajg 
Hapo^y,  "fl  BCTyna/o  He  BparoMtf  a  B03Bpam.aio  BaMiMHpt  H  ToproBjK)," 
The  Emperor  Alexander  I.  said  to  the  people,  "  I  come  not  as  an 
enemy,  but  to  restore  to  you  peace  and  commerce/' 

§  172.  Propositions,  according  to  variety  of  expression,  may  be — 

(1)  Narrative,  or  such  as  contain  the  illustration  of  any  sort 
of  subject,  or  simply  a  tale  concerning  it :     Ex.  Meitf  6bn&  HepcbLMff 

H0.W5   JKUeH,  HO   OflHH    3aKOHbI    MOIMII    6bITb    OCHOBaH:eJM5    HXT> 

CHaciia,    The  sword  was  the   first   sovereign  of  the 


.(    89    ) 

people,  but  the  laws  alone  could  be  the  foundation  of  their  civic 
happiness. 

(2)  Interrogative,  or  such  as  suggest  questions  : — Ex.  SaniMT, 
npoxoAOttf  MI»I  6e35  BiiiiMaHi/z  MUMO  TpyAo'05  36M.ieAi>.ii>ua,  npo-iHBaio- 
m.aio  norb  na^t  coocTBeimo/o  UOAOCOJO,  Why  do  we  pass  by  without 
notice  the  labours  of  an  agriculturist  who  pours  out  his  sweat  over 
his  own  strip  of  land  ? 

(3)  Exclamatory,  or  those  which  give  utterance  to  a  cry  of 
surprise,  or  of  some  strong  feeling :     Ex.  ^BaAnaib  ipa 
xpHCiiancKHXT)  Ayiiib   npHSbiBatOTCfl    KI>   HOBOU   JKHSHH,  HI. 

CBoero  4e.iOBrfeiiecKaro  ^ocioHHCTBa !  Twenty-three  millions  of 
Christian  souls  are  called  to  a  new  life,  to  the  recognition  of  their 
own  human  worth  ! 

(4)  Imperative,    which    express    a    wish,    command,   or    pro- 
hibition :  Ex.  Haipamdcbume  Aoopo/ji>Te.ib,  npoceibu^dume  JIO^CH,  yco- 
eepweucmeyume   BOcnmaHie,  Reward  virtue,  enlighten   the  people. 
perfect  education. 

Obs. — Imperative  propositions  may  be — (a)  impressive,  or 
those  giving  expression  to  a  precise  injunction.  The  con- 
struction of  such  entails  the  addition  of  the  conjunction  me 
to  the  imperative  mood:  Ex.  uumduwe  rpoMHe,  read  (thou) 
louder;  &c. — (6)  softening,  or  such  as  are  employed  in 
ordinary  conversation  and  in  popular  phraseology.  These 
are  formed  by  means  of  the  addition  of  the  particle  Ka  to 
the  imperative  mood  :  Ex.  CKaJKHffa  Mflt,  Prithee  tell 
me ;  &c. 

(5)  Hypothetical  or  conditional,  or  such  as  are  formed  by  the 
addition  of  the  conjunction  6bi  to  the  past  tense  of  a  verb  :  Ex. 
Kor^a  6bi  BH  noaeoKOMH^HCb  c/b  HHMT>,  TO  nojK)6£in  6bi  ero,  Had  you 
become  acquainted  with  him,  you  would  have  liked  him  ;  &c. 

§  173.  Compound  propositions  are  formed — 

(1)  By  coupling  one  principal  proposition  with  another  by 
means  of  conjunctions.     Ex.  Ha  Bora  ynoBaw,  a  caait  He  iMoinaH, 
Hope  in  God,  and  be  not  careless ;  &c. 

(2)  By  coupling  principal  with  subordinate  propositions,  by 
means  of  the  various  grammatical  parts  of  speech  (vide  §  170) : 


(     90    ). 

Ex.  HcTop?/?  ecib  HayKa,  Koxopa^  nsoSpaiKaerb  BX  cBaaiiOM'b 
cymecTBeHHbia  nepeivrliH&j  BT>  JKHSHH  HapoflOBii  H.IH  rocy4apcTBi>,  History 
is  the  science  which  depicts  in  a  connected  narrative  the  actual 
changes  in  the  life  of  peoples  or  of  sovereignties.  A  subordinate 
proposition  may  occur  at  the  beginning  of  a  sentence  :  Ex.  JEcju 
ne  cvyMJbewi)  cmsdmb  e$  HeMHoiuxz  cjoedxv  moio,  nibMti  HOJIHO  cepdi^e, 
TO  MHoro-piqieM-L  io.ibKO  paaBe^eniL  BO^OIO  c66cTBeunoe  nyBCTBo,  // 
thou  canst  not  say  in  a  few  words  that  with  which  (thy)  heart  (is) 
full,  then  with  much  speech  thou  only  dilutest  thine  own  feeling 
with  water;  &c. 

§  174.  Speech  is  formed  by  coupling  simple  or  compound  pro- 
positions possessing  some  connection  of  their  own. 

§  175.  Speech  is  either  periodical  or  abrupt. — Periodical  speech 
consists  of  several  compound  propositions.      Ex.  fl  roTOBiuca  6birb 
TOpatecTBa  BeJHKOJinHaro  :  HO  xopJKecTBo,  mjijkmioe  MHOK) 

Moe  oJKHAauie TaKoe  ate  HVBCTBO,  naKoe   noipacajo 

MOW  Ayniy,  Kor/ta  npe^ciaBHJHCb  Mflt  BT>  nepBbiM  paai 
H  yBMA-feji)  PHMT>  nocpe^H  ero  aanyciiBiueH  paBHimbi,  nor^a 
KO  xpa>iy  CBfliaro  Heipa,  H  ociaHOBH.ica  no4T>  ero  H3yMHTewibHbiMT> 
CBo^OMi.  I  made  myself  ready  to  be  a  witness  of  a  magnificent 
triumph  :  but  the  triumph  which  I  saw  exceeded  my  expectation. 
....  The  same  sort  of  feeling  agitated  my  mind  when  the  Alps 
were  presented  to  me  for  the  first  time,  when  I  saw  Rome  amidst 
her  (lit.  its)  desolated  ruins,  when  I  came  beneath  the  temple  of 
St.  Peter,  and  remained  beneath  its  amazing  vault ;  &c. — Abrupt 
speech  consists  of  several  simple  principal  propositions,  coupled  by 
grammatical  parts  of  speech.  Ex.  nyBCTBO  yciaiocTH  Dcneajo  :  ciubi 
MOH  BOSOBHOBHJHCb :  ^bixanic  Moe  ciaJio  jerKO.  The  feeling  of 
fatigue  disappeared :  my  strength  was  renewed :  my  breathing 
became  easy,  &c. 

§  176.  Syntax  embraces  the  rules  :  (1)  of  the  concord  (coiMa- 
coBame) ;  (2)  government  (ynpasjeHie) ;  (3)  arrangement  (pa3Ml>- 
meaie),  of  words;  and  (4)  punctuation  (npenHHame). 

I.    CONCORD  OF  WORDS. 

§  177.  Concord  of  words  signifies  their  regular  coupling  in  all 
parts  of  the  proposition. 


(     91     ) 

§  178.    The  most  important  rules  under  this  head  are  the  follow- 
ing:—  . 

(1)  The  subject  and  the  predicate,  when  expressed  by  declinable 
parts  of  speech,  agree  in  case,  but  in  gender  and  number  they  may 
differ  when  the  predicate  is  a  noun  substantive  :     Ex.  KauiMb'iim 
Hapodti  Konyroiiiiw,  The  Kalmucks,  a  nomad  race,  &c. 

(2)  When  the  verb  6biTb  indicates  a  temporary  condition,  the 
predicate  is  used  in  the  instrumental  case  :  Ex.  Bpaxs  MOM  Tor^a 
6i>iM  KademoMZ,   My  brother  was   then  a  cadet ;    IlepBWtf  Oyoymt 
nocdfbduuMu  H  noc.ii>AHie  nepGbiMU,  The  first  shall  be  last,  and  the 
last  first ;  &c. 

(3)  A   predicate   expressed   by   a    verb  or  participle  with   a 
shortened  termination  always  agrees  with  the  subject  in  gender, 
number  and  person  :  Ex.  /(OMT>  npo^ant,  the  house  has  been  sold  ; 
AepeBH/z  KyiLieHa,  the  village  has  been  bought;  nncLMa  oiupaBjeubi, 
the  letters  have  beeen  despatched  ;  &c. 

(4)  Definitions  agree  with  those  words  which  they  define  in 
gender,  number  and  case  :   Ex.  MHorie  flHKie  napo^bi    noK.iOHSK)Tca 
HeSecHbiMT*  CB'frnbaM'i,,  many  wild  races  worship  the  heavenly  lumi- 
naries; &c. 

(5)  An  apposition  agrees  with  its  substantive  in  case,  whilst 
it  may  differ  from  it  in  gender  and  number  :  Ex.  JKejfeo,  nojeafliii- 
wiu   Meiajji),   HaxoflHTCff  y  naci>  BT>  H3o6n.iiH,  Iron,  a  most  useful 
metal,  is  found  with  us  in  great  abundance ;  &c. 

(6)  When  there  are  two  nouns  (an  appellative  and  a  proper) 
in  apposition  signifying  one  and  the  same  object,  but  of  a  different 
gender  and  number,  the  predicate  agrees  as  to  these  with  the  appel- 
lative noun :   Ex.  r6po#T>  AenHbi  cjaBHJca  B-L  ^peBHOCTH,  The  town 
of  Athens  was  famous  in  antiquity  ;  &c. 

(7)  In  the  case  of  titles,  such  as  Be.iH4ecTBO  Majesty,  BbicoHeciBO 
Highness,  CBtaocTb  Serene  Highness, &c., the  words  defined  by  them 
agree  with  them  in  gender  :  Ex.  IlMnepaiopCKoe  BeiHiecTBO,  Impe- 
rial Majesty;    Baina  CfiiTJOCTb,  Your  Serene  Highness,  &c. ; — but 
the  predicates  belonging  to  them  agree  in  gender  with  the  person- 
age to  whom  the  title  relates  :  Ex.  Ero  HMnepaiopCKoe    Beji'ineCTBO 
H3BO.iH.rb   B03BpaiHTbCfl    H3i>   MocKBbi,    His    Imperial    Majesty   was 
pleased  to  return  from  Moscow ;  Ea  Kopo-ieBCKoe  BbiconecTBO  noci- 


(     92     ) 

Befc  Bbicniifl  yieGHbin  saBe/jenm,  Her  Royal  Highness  visited 
all  the  high  schools;  Ero  CfiiTJOCTt  6bi JT> 3anaTT>  uijbifl  AeHb  BaiKHbiMii 
A^uaum,  His  Serene  Highness  was  engaged  the  whole  day  with 
important  business ;  &c. 

(8)  If  there  are  two  or  more  substantives  of  different  genders, 
and    one    of    these   is    of   the   masculine    gender,   the    definition 
will  also  be  of  the  masculine  gender:  Ex.  OHT,  npiiHeci.  Baivn>  noebie 
maHbi,   KHIIFH   H    jan^Kapibi,  KynMumie  no  Baineiuy  jKejaHiK),  He 
brought  you  the  new  plans,  books  and  maps  bought  according  to 

your  desire. 

« 

(9)  If  two   or  more   definitions   relate   to   the  same  object, 
then  both  the  subject   and   the  predicate  are  put  in   the   plural 
number :    Ex.  E'kioe   H  AsoBCKoe  MopA   naxodnmcn,   BT,   npe^-kiaxi, 
Poccifi,  The  White  Sea  and  the  Sea  of  Azoff  are  situated  in   the 
confines  of  Russia;  &c. 

(10)  When  several  objects  are  referred  to,  and  their  general 
number  is  expressed  by  the  pronouns  ece  or  nuumo,  the  predicate  is 
placed  in  the  singular  number :  Ex.  Bee  eMy  Hpaeudocb,  ece  eocxu- 
\UI<IJIQ  ero,  everything  .pleased,  everything  charmed  him  ;  HH  npocbfibi, 
HH  Mo.ibo'bi,  HH  caesbi  HecHacTHbix-b  —  Hmmo  ne  MOUO  ero  Tponyib, 
Neither  the  requests  nor  the  prayers  nor  the  tears  of  the  unfortu- 
nate— nothing  could  touch  him. 

(11)  A  separate  object  relating  to  any  of  two  or  more  persons 
spoken  of  in  the  proposition  is  placed  in  the  singular  instead  of 
the  plural  number  :  Ex.  Ilocji  xaKoH  neyAa^H,  66a  6paia  noBiciUH 
HOCK  (not  HOCM),  After  such  misfortune,  both  brothers  became  dis- 
couraged (lit.,  hung  down  their  noses)  ;  &c. 

(12)  The  verb   6bimi)  in  the  present  tense  does   not   always 
agree  with  the  subject  in  number,  and  is  sometimes  placed  in  the 
singular,  although  the  subject  be  in  the  plural  number  :  Ex.  Y  Meea 
ecmb  pibdwH  KapmuHbi,  I  have  rare  pictures,  &c. 

(13)  When  the  verb  6bimb  in  the  past  tense  is  found   between 
two  substantives  of  different  genders,  it  must  agree  in  gender  with 
the  first,  and  not  with  the  second.     Ex.  HeipT,  fout  pfaoe  H  Bece- 
joe  jura,  Peter  was  a  playful  and  merry  child. 

(14)  When    the   subject  is   represented    by   the   adverbs   of 
quantity — MHO^O,   much,    many  ;    MOJO,   little ;    H'fecKOJbKO,    some, 
several ;    CKO4bi;o,  how   much,   how  many ;    CTOJbKO,  so    much,   so 


(    93     ) 

many — the  predicate  is  placed  in  the  neuter  gender  and  singular 
number.  Ex.  Bt>  STOMT>  cpaHteniii  yOumo  nncKOMKO  o*imepOB'b,  In 
this  engagement  several  officers  (were)  killed. 

(15)  The  words  MiiojuecBio,  multitude,  66.ibiima  Hacib,  greater 
part,  Majiaa  nacib,  lesser  part,  require  the  verb  or  predicate  to  be  in 
the   singular   number  :    Ex.   TUMI.   co6pdj,ocb   MHomecmeo   co-iAarb, 
There  were  collected  a  multitude  of  soldiers ;  EoMwan  nacmi)  HaiUHXt 
TOBapnmeii  npousecdend  BT.  o*nuepbi,  The  greater  part  of  our  com- 
rades were  promoted  to  officers. 

(16)  Verbs   which  relate  to  one    object  must  be  put   in   the 
same  tense  and  aspect :  Ex.  OUT.  crbM  3a  cio.n>,  nodyMciM,  nanucdjz 
p'fciiiHTe.ibHbiH  oiBtrb  H  omTipdouM  ero  KT>  npocMie-iK),  He  sat  down 
at  the  table,  thought  a  little,  wrote  a  decisive  answer,  and  sent  it  off 
to  the  petitioner  ; — but  when  there  are  adverbs  or  conjunctions  with 
the  verbs,  different  aspects  may  be  used  :  Ex.  OHT.  crbM  aa  CTO.n>, 
doMO  AyMa.n>,  nomoMZ  cmaM  nucamb  oiB-BTb  H  naKoufyb  omnpdeuM 
ero  KT>  npocnxeJK),  He  sat  down  at  the  table,  thought  for  a  long  time, 
then  began  to  write  an  answer,   and  finally  despatched  it   to  the 
petitioner. 

(17)  A  gerund  in  a  subordinate, ;  nda  verb  in  a  main,  proposi- 
tion must  express  the  action  of  one  and  the  same  person  :  Ex.  Ilo.iy- 
quBT>  nucbMO,  a  nanucaxb  OTfiirb,  On  receiving  the  letter,  I  wrote  the 
answer,  &c.     Therefore  it  would  be  irregular  to  say,  Cioa  na  ropfe, 
rjasa    MOM    Bocxnina.nicb    npenpacHbiMT.   BH,JOMI>,    Standing   on    the 
mountain,    my  eyes   were  enchanted   with  the   beautiful    sight, — • 
instead  of  Cioa  Ha  ropi,  a  Bocxuma-ica  npenpacHbiM'b  BH^OMT,,   Stand- 
on  the  mountain,  I  was  enchanted  with  the  beautiful  sight ;  &c. 

II.    THE  GOVERNMENT  OF  WORDS. 

§  179.  In  the  government  of  words  are  explained  the  various 
relations  between  the  principal  and  the  secondary  parts  of  the  pro- 
position. 

§  180.  These  relations  show  the  dependence  of  one  word  on 
another,  and  such  words  are  said  to  be  governing,  and  governed  or 
subordinate:  Ex.  IHyMT,  6ypH,  o6pa30BaHie  cep^ua,  &c. ;  the  noise 
of  the  tempest,  the  formation  of  the  heart,  &c.  Here  the  words 
and  o6pri306dnie  are  the  governing  words,  whilst  6ypu  and 
fi  are  the  governed  words,  or  those  dependent  thereon. 


(     94     ) 

§  181.  The  principal  rules  in  the  government  of  words  are  con- 
tained in  the  subjoined  use  of  the  oblique  cases  with  and  without 
prepositions.  The  nominative  and  vocative  cases  being  direct,  do 
not  depend  on  other  words,  and  therefore  are  not  subject  to  govern- 
ment. 

(a.)  Use  of  the  Cases  without  Prepositions. 

§  182.  The  genitive  case  answers  to  the  questions,  Koro?  of  whom? 
iiero  ?  of  what  ?  nefl  ?  HLH  ?  Hbe  ?  whose  ?  and  is  used — 

(1)  Where  there  are  two  nouns  substantive  in  a  complementary 
phrase  :  Ex.  MCHH  HsyMibaBbicoTa  lop*,  The  height  of  the  mountains 
astonished  me;  &c.    A  complement  is  sometimes  used  in  the  dative 
instead  of  in  the  genitive  case  :  Ex.  3£i>cb  HasHaneea  ivfcfla  MJbcmaMti, 
Here  (is)  noted  the  prices  to  the  places  ;  &c.      In  certain  masculine 
nouns  signifying  quantity,  the  termination  of  the  genitive  case  is 
changed  into  that  of  the  dative  :    Ex.  H   Kyinm.  ny^t  cdxapy  n 
<^yHTi>  ndw,  I  bought  a  pood  (36  Ibs.)  of  sugar  and  a  pound  of  tea 
(vide  §  39).    Nouns  substantive  in  the  genitive  case  can  be  changed 
into  nouns  adjective  :  Ex.  Jyn*  co.iHn,a,  A  ray  of  sun  ;   coJtne^Hblu 
JiyHT),  solar  ray;  &c. 

(2)  In  the  case  of  nouns  substantive  derived  from  active  verbs 
which  require  the  accusative  case :  Ex.  Vmenie  noJiesuijixt  muw  cno- 
c66cTByen>  KT>  ofipasoedmio  yMa,  The  reading  of  useful  books  aids  in 
the    education  of  the  understanding ;    &c.     Certain  nouns  derived 
from  neuter  verbs  also  require  the  genitive  case  :  Ex.  BT>  MHHepsuib- 
Hbixi.  BCT04HHKaxi>  npOHCXO^HTi  KunibHie  eodbi,  In  mineral  sources 
the  boiling  of  water  takes  place  ;  &c. 

(3)  In  indications  of  quantity,  measure,  and  weight :  Ex.  Y  Haci> 
MHoto  padombi  a  Majio  epemenu,  We  have  much  work,  but  little  time. 

(4)  After  nouns  adjective  of  the  comparative  degree  :  Ex.  Cia- 
pbin  Apyn>  jyime  Hoewxz  deyxti,  An  old  friend  (is)  better  than  two 
new  ones  ;  &c. 

(5)  In  the  case  of  nouns  adjective  indicating  merit,  strangeness^ 
fullness:  Ex.  /[OCTOHBLIU   yeavcewn,  worthy   of  respect;    n 
topdocmu,  free  from  pride  •  OBT>  iKXiyiMi.  KOiue.ieKT>  nojuwfl 

He  received  a  purse  full  of  money. 

(6)  In  the  case  of  the  numerals  no.nopa,  flBa,  66a,  ipa, 

and  their  compounds,  such  as   ^ea^uaib  pa,  copoin,  xpn,  &c.,  the 
genitive  case  is  placed  in  the  singular  number :  Ex.  iKxnopa  py6.w, 


(     95     ) 

1^  roubles;  £ca  cmo.id,  two  tables ;  6(5a  6pdma,  both  brothers;  ipn 
KHUIU,  three  books;  Heib'ipe  cmeKJid,  four  panes  of  glass ;  naib- 
46CHTT.  ipn  codddma,  fifty-three  soldiers,  &c. ;  but  with  all  the  other 
numerals  the  genitive  case  plural  is  used :  Ex.  Haib  cw(uo0&,  BOCCML 
fipdmbeez,  CTO  cmiiKOM,  Tb'icana  Kumti,  five  tables,  eight  brothers,  100 
panes  of  glass y  1000  books,  &c. 

(7)  In  the  case  of  the  numerals  ^Ba,  66a,  ipn,  Heib'ipe,  and 
their  compounds,  the  adjective  is  used  in  the  nominative  case  of 
the  plural  number,  and  in  the  same  gender  as  that  to  which  the 
substantive  in  question  belongs :  Ex.  Ero  mpu  nocdfbdmH  conuHeniH 
HitfijH  6o.ibffl6fi  ycniiX'L,  His    three  last  compositions  had  a  great 
success ;    &c.     In  the  case  of  all  the  other  numerals,  beginning 
with  five,  the  adjective  and  the  substantive  must  agree  in  number 
and  case :  Ex.  CeMb  nocxfeAHnxt  coHHHeniH,  the  seven  last  composi- 
tions ;  &c. 

(8)  In  the  case  of  active  verbs,  when  their  action  extends  to 
a  part  only  of  the  object :  Ex.  4aa  MH^  denem,  Give  me  some  money. 
With  such  verbs  are  always  understood  adverbs  of  quantity,  such 
as  HCMHOIO,  little,  few  ;    nncKOMKO,  some^  several ;  &c. 

(9)  In  the  case  of  active  verbs  with  the  negative  adverb  «<?, 
not  :  Ex.  fl  ne  Awfaw  npaaAHOCTH,  I  do  not  like  idleness ;  &c.     The 
genitive  case  is  also  used  when   the  negative  precedes  the  verb 
which  comes  before  the  governing  verb  :  Ex.  Tbi  He  XOTBlt  HHiaib 
SiHOU  KHUIU,  Thou  didst  not  desire  to  read  this  book. 

(10)  Active,   reflective,    and   common    verbs   implying  wish, 
expectation,  deprivation,  fear,  danger,  require    the  genitive  case  : 
Ex.  H  otceJidjo  BaMi>  ycnri>xa  BT,  BatiieM-b  ffcxb,  I  wish  you  success  in 
your  business;    OHT>  £6.iro  OKdaM   naipddbi,    He  long  expected  a 
reward ;    Bbi  \iuiuuJiu   Menu   ydoeoMcmein  BH^tib   saci,  You  have 
deprived  me  of  the  satisfaction  of  seeing  (lit.  to  see)  you;    H  ona- 
cdiocb  nowdpa  a  Tbi  6ouwcfi  uaeodnemJi,  I  dread  a  fire,  and  thou 
fearest  an  inundation  ;  &c. 

(11)  The  following  verbs  also  govern  the  genitive  case: — 
,  to  require;    yjocTHraib,  to  attain ;  croHTt,  to  cost ;  OTB!>- 

,  to  test ;  AOMoraibca,  to  solicit;  oi^maTbca,  to  obey;  CTbiflihbCH, 
to  be  ashamed  of ;  and  certain  others  of  similar  signification, 
v/hich  answer  to  the  questions  KOFO  ?  Hero  ? 

(12)  The   genitive   case   is   required   after  adverbs  denoting 
place,  such  as  863.1%,  beside ;  no^-iii,  near  ;  6jiH3i>,  near ;  B,jo.ib,  along ; 


(     96     ) 

,  outside ;  BHyipn,  inside ;  cnapyjKH,  on  the  outside ;  MHMO,  by  ; 
OKOJO,  near;  and  others  after  which  are  put  the  questions  KOFO  ? 
nero? 

§  183.  The  dative  case  answers  to  the  questions  KOM^?  HGMy? 
and  is  used — 

(1)  With  certain  active  verbs,  such  as   no^paJKaib,  to  copy ; 
/z0MoqB,  to  aid ;  cjyjKHTb,  to  serve ;  yroHUaib,  to  please ; 

to  harm ;  w/iyTCTBOBaib,  to  travel  with  ;  &c. 

(2)  With  certain  reflective  and  common  verbs,  such  as 
jflTbCfl,  to  be  surprised  at;    pa^OBaibCfl,  to  rejoice  at;    npe/jaibcs,  to 
give  one's  self  up  to ;   MO.IHTLCS,  to  worship ;  jKaJOBaibca,  to  complain 
to;  HpaBHTbca,  to  please;  &c. 

(3)  With  the  impersonal  verbs,  such  as  JK&ib,  it  is  a  pity ; 
cibiflHO,  it  is  shameful ;  xoieica,  one  desires ;  Ha^oSHO,  it  is  necessary ; 
nyjKHO,  it  is  needful ;  &c. 

(4)  When   the  complement  is   a  personal   object  indicating 
relations/lip,  friendship,  enmity,  &c. :  Ex.  Oflb  MHJb   dndfi,  Tbi   eMy 
dpyit,  He  (is)  uncle  to  me,  thou  (art  a)  friend  to  him;   OHT>  Uempy 
6oM>w6u  nenpiAmejib,  He  is  a  great  enemy  to  Peter  ;  &c. 

(5)  With  the  adverbs   npaJH^HO,  becoming;    cooiB'feTCTBeuHO, 
corresponding  to  ;  coo6pa3HO,  conformably  to ;  &c. 

(6)  The  following  adverbs  likewise  require  the  dative  case . 
BOnpeKH,  contrary  to ;    Ha-3.i6,  despite;    Ha-cMtx'b,  in  derision  of; 
ea-nepeKopi.,  in  spite  of;  BT>-yro/ty,  for  the  pleasure  of;  &c. 

§  184.  The  accusative  case  answers  to  the  questions  KOFO  ?  HTO  ? 
and  is  used — 

(1)  As  a  complement,  after  active  verbs  without  a  negative  : 
Ex.  OHT»  nynuM  pibdnyw  mmy,  He  bought  a  rare  book  ;  &c. 

(2)  As  a  complement,  after  neuter  verbs  indicating  a  known 
distance  or  time :  Ex.  OHT.  6ijKa,n>  i^Tbjyw  eepcmy,  He  ran  a  whole 
verst ;     Mbi    He   cnaiH   ecio   mm,   We   did    not   sleep   the   whole 
night;  &c. 

§  185.  The  instrumental  case  answers  to  the  questions   K%MT»  ? 
HTBMI.  ?    and  is  used — 

(1)   With  all  the  passive  verbs:  Ex.  OHT>  6bi.n>  JK)6nMi»  |CBMa 
,  He  was  beloved  by  all  his  comrades ;  &c. 


(    97     ) 

(2)  With  the  reciprocal  verbs,  followed  by  the  preposition  en : 
Ex.  HaiiiH  BoiicKa  xpa6po  cpajKajncs  c5  Henpiaie-iflMn,  Our  troops 
bravely  engaged  with  the  enemy  ;  &c. 

(3)  With  certain  of  the  reflective  and  the  common  verbs,  such 
as   saeHMaiBca,  to  occupy  one's  self;    VMbiibca,  to  wash  one's  self; 
ropAHTbca,   to  pride  one's  self ;    Bocxamaica,  to  be  charmed  with ; 
.JK>6oBaTbCfl,  to  delight  in  ;  &c. 

(4)  With  verbs   indicating  power,  management,  arrangement, 
such  as   B-ia^iib,  to  rule ;  ynpaB.i»Tb,  to  govern ;  pacnopajKaibca,  to 
dispose  ;  aaB^biBaib,  to  manage ;  o6.iaflaTb,  to  possess  ;  pacno.iaraTB, 
to  place ;  &c. 

(5)  The   following   verbs   likewise   require   the   instrumental 
case :    ^opoiKHTb,  to  prize ;    JKepiBOBaib,  to  sacrifice  ;    oGiboBaTb,  to 
abound  in  ;    cipaAaib,  to  suffer  ;  &c. 

(6)  Nouns  substantive  derived  from  verbs  which  govern  the 
instrumental    case    require   that    the    words    subordinate    to  them 
should  also  be  in  the  same  case  :  Ex.  pacnopaHte'Hie  UMyi^ecmeoM^, 
the  distribution  of  'property ;  saBfyjbiBame  dnJidmu,  the  management 
of  affairs  ;  &c. 

§  186.  The  prepositional  case  is  always  used  with  prepositions. 
With  the  prepositional  case  are  used  many  verbs  answering  to  the 
questions  OKOMT.?  OHeMi>?  BT>  qeirb?  npn  4eMT>?  such  as  flyMaib,  to 
think  about ;  MeniaTb,  to  reflect ;  coiKa^iib,  to  regret ;  ne^tunTbca, 
to  grieve;  3a66iHTbCff,  to  busy  one's  self;  xjonoTaib,  to  bustle  ;  ynpa- 
JKHaTbca,  to  occupy  one's  self;  HaxoflHTbca,  to  be  situated;  cociOi'iTb, 
to  consist  of;  &c. 

§  1 87.  Certain  verbs  require  various  cases.  The  more  frequently 
used  of  such  are  the  following  : — 

(1)  }Ka.i1>Tb,  to  pity;  npocHTb,  to  beg;  which  require  the  geni- 
tive or  the  prepositional. 

(2)  yAOBieiBop/iTb,  to  satisfy  ;    noKpOBHTeJCTBOBaib,  to  protect ; 
which  require  the  dative  and  the  accusative.     The  dative  when  the 
action  relates  to  an  intellectual  object :  Ex.  y^OBjeTBOpaib  oKeJtdniio, 
JK)6omicm6y,  to  satisfy  desire,  curiosity;  noKpOBHTe^bCTBOBaib  uayxaMS 
H  xydowccmeaMZ,  to  encourage  the  sciences  and  arts.     The  accusa- 
tive with  a  personal  object :  Ex.  y#OB.ieTBOpHTb  npocumeMi,  to  satisfy 
i\\z petitioner ;  noKpoBihe.ibCTBOBaTb  tftitdimxz  cupomz,  to  protect  poor 
orphans,  &c. 

'  H  i 


(     98     ) 

(3)  In  the  case  of  the  verbs  YHHTB,  to  teach,  and  oSyiaib,  to 
train,  the  personal  noun  is  placed  in  the  accusative,  and  the  object 
of  the  action  in  the  dative,  case :  Ex.  OHT>  ynnrb  MOIO  cecmpy  mysmvnby 
He  teaches  my  sister  music,  &c. 

(4)  The  verb  c-iiAOBaib,  to  follow,  governs  the  dative  and  the 
instrumental.     The  former,  where  intellectual  nouns  are  concerned: 
Ex.   CU1>AOBaTb  dofipbiMt  npuMwpaMZ  H  coeifanaMti,  To  follow  good 
examples  and  counsels.      It  requires  all  other  nouns  to  be  in  the 
instrumental  case,  before  which   is   used  the  preposition  sa  :  Ex. 
BOHHBI  Cjii>Ayiorb  3a  ceouMZ  no.iKoeodi^eMZ,  The  soldiers  follow  (after) 
their  leader,  &c. 

(5)  The  verbs  HcnpaiUHBaib,  to  ask  for,  aaaiyjKHBaib,  to  deserve, 
HCKaib,  to  seek,  when  used  in  the  present  tense,  and  in  the  imperfect 
aspect  of  the  past  and  future  tenses,  require  the  genitive  case ;  but 
when  used  in  the  perfect  aspect  they  govern  the  accusative  case : 
Ex.  OHT,  HcnpaiiiHBaerb,  or  HciipauiBBawn>,  edmeio  cowdcin,  He  asks,  or 
he  asked,  foxy  our  consent ;  Get  HcnpocH.n>,  or  ncnpocHTL,  ediue  couid- 
cie}  He  asked,  or  will  ask,  for  your  consent;  &c. 

(6)  The  following  verbs  govern  the  accusative  and  the  instru- 
mental cases  : — npeneSperaTb,  to  despise  ;  Gpocaib,  to  throw  ;   Bep- 
liib,  to  turn  ;  npOMbiiiLiaTb,  to  cTeal ;  xoproBaib,  to  trade;  Spb'iaraib, 
to  sprinkle. 

(7)  The  verb  y^ocioHBaib,  which  requires  the  genitive  case, 
sometimes   governs   the   instrumental    case    also :    Ex.   y/jociOHTb 
nazpddbi  H   Mujocmw, .  to  bestow  rewards  and  favours ;    Focyflapb 
y^ocioHJ'b  ero  ceouMK pasioeopoMt,  The  sovereign  honoured  him  with 
his  conversation  ;  &c. 

(8)  The   verb  HaSjio^aTb,   to   observe,    when  it  suggests   the 
question     HTO  ?,    requires    the    accusative    case :    Ex.    Ha6jK)AaTD 
nopAdoKK  H   iiucmomy,  to  observe  order  and  cleanliness ;  and  when 
it  suggests  the  questions  aa  MtMi>  ?  aa  KtMT>  ?   it  takes  the  instru- 
mental case,  with  the  preposition  30.  :  Ex.  Ha6.!H)4aTb  3a  nopndKOMti 
H  3a  uucmomow,  to  look  after  order  and  cleanliness. 

Obs. — The  rules  of  government,  to  which  a  verb  is  subject, 
remain  the  same  when  that  verb  is  changed  into  another 
part  of  speech :  Ex.  OHT>  flOCTHrb  CBoefl  i^nm,  He  attained 
his  object;  ^ociHraiomiH  futn>Jiu,  one  who  attains  (his)  object ; 
,  the  attainment  of  an  object ;  &c.  But  nouns 


(     99    ) 

substantive,  derived  from  active  verbs  which  require  the 
accusative  case,  govern  the  genitive,  as  already  stated  in 
§  182 :  Ex.  cipoenie  doMa,  Hieme  Kumu,  the  building  of  the 
house,  the  reading  of  the  book.  Others,  again,  govern  the 
dative,  with  the  preposition  KZ  :  Ex.  noHieflie  KZ  podumeji- 
RMT),  yeaJKeiiie  KI>  cmdpuiUMt,  reverence  to  parents,  respect  to 
elders;  &c. 

(9)  The  verb  Cuaro4apHTb  requires  the  accusative  case,  whilst 
words  derived  from  it  govern  the  dative :  Ex.  fl  (xiaro^apib  Eota, 
I  thank  God ;  fiMtiodapeme  Bdiy,  thanks  to  God;  6j,aiodapA  cooeMy 
dhdib,  OHT>  yiLiamiii  Bd>  A<xirH,  thanks  to  his  uncle,  he  paid  all  his 
debts. 

(b)  Use  of  the  Cases  with  Prepositions. 

§  1 88.   The  government  of  the  oblique  cases  likewise  depends  on 
prepositions  : — 

(1)  The  prepositions  6e3i>,  £.ifl,  pa^H,  #o,  H3i»,  OTT>,  y,  and  their 
compounds  H3i>  sa,  HS'b-noA'b,  always  require  the  genitive  case. 

(2)  Kt  (KO)  governs  the  dative  case. 

(3)  IIpo,  Hpe3T>  (nepesij),  coo:ib,  the  accusative. 

(4)  Ha^T>,  the  instrumental. 

(5)  Ilpn,  the  prepositional. 

(6)  The    prepositional     adverb     Me^y    (MeJKi>)    requires    the 
genitive   and   the  instrumental :    Ex.  BTOT&  r6po#5  JLeaJHTt  Meoicdy 
doyxti  pTbK5,  or  M&xcdy  doyMH  pnnaMU,  This  town  lies  between  two 
rivers  ;  &c. 

(7)  When  sa  answers  to  the  question  KV£a?  whither?  it  requires 
the  accusative  :  Ex.  3a  ptKy,  3a  Mope,  beyond  the  river,  beyond  the 
sea.     But  when  it  answers  to  the  question  idn  ?  where  ?  it  governs 
the  instrumental  :  Ex.  3a  p^KOK),  3a  MOpeMb.     Likewise,  when  it 
answers  to  the  question  3a  HTO?  for  what?   it  requires  the  accusa- 
tive case :   Ex.  TM  6bUT»  HaKa3aHT>  3a  Annocmi),  a   OHI   no^yMMJ-b 
uarpa/iy  sa  npuacycdtiie,  Thou  wast  punished  for  idleness,  and  he 
received  a  reward  for  industry. 

(8)  When  noflT>  answers  to  the  question   Ky^a?  whither?   it 
requires  the  accusative :  Ex.  QHT>  cte>  nods  depeeo,  He  took  a  seat 
under  the  tree.     But  when  it  answers  to  the  question   r^'fe  ?  where  ? 


it  governs  the  instrumental  :  Ex.  om>  CHAtrrb  nod%  depeeoMV,  he  is 
sitting-  under  the  tree. 

(9)  npeAT>  or  nepefli>  requires  both  the  accusative  and  the  in- 
strumental :  Ex.  OHT.  npe^cia^'L  npedti  Focyddpfi  or  npedti  Focyddp- 
eMtij  He  presented  himself  before  the  sovereign.  With  inanimate 
and  abstract  objects,  this  preposition  is  more  often  used  in  the 
instrumental  case  :  Ex.  OHI>  HBibca  npedz  topodoMti,  He  appeared 
before  the  town  ;  OHT>  npaBt  npedti  ceoeio  cJeibcmbw,  He  (is)  right  in 
bis  own  conscience  &c. 


(10)  "When  BT>  (BO)  answers  to  the  question  KVfla  ?    whither? 
it  requires  the  accusative  :  Ex.  OHT>  nome.rb  05  no.ie,  He  went  into 
the  field.     But  when  it  answers  to  the  question  r^ii  ?  where  ?    it 
governs  the  prepositional  :  Ex.  Om>  ryjiaerb  05  nojn,  he  takes  a  walk 
in  the  field.     The  preposition  BT>  (BO)  with  certain  verbs  indicating 
promotion,  bestowal  of  rank  or  reward,  under  any  conditions  what- 
ever, requires   the   accusative  case   of  the  plural  number,  and  that 
case  must  in  such  instances  be  like  the  nominative  :  Ex.  IIponaBecTb 
BT,  04>imepbi,  to  promote  to  (be  an)  officer  ;  HasHaHHib  BT>  KauAHyjaibi, 
to  appoint  (as)  candidate  ;  &c. 

(11)  When  na  answers  to  the  questions  K\£a  ?   whither?   iia 
Koro  ?  on  whom  ?    Ha  <n6?  on  what  ?  it  requires  the  accusative  case  : 
Ex.  OHT>  oinpaBiLica   Ha  ocipOBT.,  He  set  out  for  the  island  ;    fl  Ha- 
AiBfOCB  Ha  Bamy  ApyjK6y,  I  rely  on  your  friendship.     But  when  the 
same  preposition  answers  to  the  questions  rAi>  ?  where  ?  Ha  KOMT>  ?  on 
whom?    na  He»n>?  on  what   (implying  rest)?  it  governs  the  pre- 
positional :  Ex.  Fopa  Sina  Haxo^HTca  Ha  ocipOBt  CimHjin,  Mount 
Etna  is  situated  in  (lit.  on)  the  island  of  Sicily;  &c. 

(12)  When  o  (061.)  answers  to  the  questions  o  HTO  or  060  HTO  ? 
against  what?  it  requires  the  accusative  :  Ex.  OHT>  yiUH6cfl  o  Kaftieiib, 
He  hurt  himself  against  the  stone.  But  when  it  answers   to  the 
questions  o  KOMI?  about  whom?    o  ie]vn>?  about  w^hat?  it  governs 

'the  prepositional  case:  Ex.  OHI>  roBOpHTT)  o  KaMH^  He  speaks  about 
the  stone  ;  &c. 

(13)  When  CT>  (co)  answers  to  the  question  CT>  nero  ?  from   off 
what?  it  requires  the  genitive  case  :  Ex.  OHT>  ynaji>  CT>  Joma^H,  He 
fell  from  off  the  horse.     When  it  answers  to  the  question  CT>  Koro  ? 
like  whom?    CO  TITO?  like  what  ?  indicating  comparison,  it   requires 
the  accusative  :  'Ex.  BeJirinnoK)  CT>  Jioma^b,  In  size  like  a  horse?  &c. 
When,  again,  it  answers  to  the  questions  CT>  Kt>n>  ?  with  whom  ?  crb 


(     101     ) 

?  with  what  ?  it  governs  the  instrumental :  Ex.  OHT>  Kyn6n> 
ca-HH  CL  JoniaABK),  He  bought  a  sledge  «piM  a  horse;  &c. 

(14)  When  no  answers  to  the  questions  no  H6My  ?  over  what? 
and  no  HeMt  ?  at  what  rate  ?  it  requires  the  dative  case  :  Ex.  OHT» 
ryjAerB  no  no^y,  He  walks  ora  the  floor;  fl  njany  no  py6.iib,  I  pay  at 
the  rate  of  a  rouble.  But  when  it  answers  to  the  question  no  HTO  ? 
up  to  what  ?  it  governs  the  accusative :  Ex.  Om>  yine.n>  BT>  Bo^y  no 
caMyto  mew,  He  went  into  the  water  up  to  (his)  very  neck.  When, 
again,  this  preposition  answers  to  the  question  no  KOMI.  ?  after 
whom  ?  it  governs  the  prepositional :  Ex.  Ont  n.ia4en>  no  OTirfe,  He 
cries  after  (his)  father.  When  no  is  used  in  the  sense  of  nooit, 
after,  it  likewise  takes  the  prepositional  case  :  Ex.  Ho  CMepiH  fleipa 
Be-iHKaro,  After  the  death  of  Peter  the  Great ;  &c. 

III.  THE  PLACING  OP  WORDS. 

§  189.  The  placing  or  arrangement  of  words  shows  the  order  in 
which  they  should  follow  when  used  in  speech. 

§  190.  In  the  arrangement  of  words  in  a  proposition,  that  order 
must  infallibly  be  adhered  to  in  which  our  thoughts  succeed  each 
other.  The  more  closely  we  keep  to  the  ordinary  conversational  style 
in  the  arrangement  of  our  words,  the  more  natural,  easy,  and  clear, 
will  be  our  expressions. 

§  191.  This  very  style,  the  use  of  which  is  maintained  by  cul- 
tivated writers,  comprises  the  observance  of  the  following  most 
important  rules : — 

(1)  The  principal  object  in  our  sentence  should  be  placed  first 
of  all,  i.e.  first  should  come  the  subject,  then  the  action  of  the  subject, 
or  the  predicate,  and  lastly  the  complement :  Ex.    fle'ipt  ocHOBa.n> 
HeTepo'yprL,  Peter  founded  St.   Petersburg ;    &c.     Speech   should 
begin  with  those  words  which  most  occupy  our  though ts  :  Ex.  Tpn,- 
HIJM  CHJBHMH  rpOMT.,  Rumbled  the  loud  thunder;  &c. 

(2)  Sometimes  before  the  principal  portion  of  the  proposition  the 
secondary  parts  are  placed,  as  these  serve  to  prepare  the  way  for  the 
main  object  of  the  narrative  :  Ex.  B$  mmiu  ObicoKou  dunbi,  na  6epeiy 
MocKQbi  pnKu,  jcjKajH  na  ipasi  #ea  MOJO^bie  He.iOBiKa,  In  the  shade  of 
a  tall  lime  tree,  on  the  bank  of  the  river  Moscow,  two  young  men  lay 
on  the  grass. 

(3)  Where    there   are    many  definitions  placed  together,  the 
following  order  should  be  observed :    first  the  pronoun,  then  the 


(     102    ) 

numeral,  after  these  the  adjective  or  participle,  and  last  of  all  the  noun 
substantive  :  Ex.  Tfc  ABa  Si^Hbie  6paia  nMiuon>  xopomia  CIIOCOOHOCTH, 
Those  two  poor  brothers  have  good  abilities ;  &c. 

(4)  A  qualifying  noun  adjective  is  alwa}Ts  placed  before  a  pos- 
sessive adjective :  Ex.  Eoiaman  aojoiaa  innara,  a  rich  golden  sword. 
And  circumstantial  adjectives  are  placed  before  both  qualifying  and 
possessive  adjectives  :    Ex.  Sdnwnee  npiaiHoe  oomeciBO,   the   local 
pleasant  society ;  &c. 

(5)  Cardinal  numerals  are  placed   before  a  noun  substantive : 
Ex.  EM^  on.  po^y  ceMbdecamz  .ife.,  He  is  seventy  years  old.  To  merely 
express  a  number  approximately,  the  numeral  may  be  placed  after 
the  substantive  :  Ex.  Einy  6n>  pofly  .itrb  ceMbdecnmz,  He    is  about 
seventy  years  old. 

(6)  Ordinal  numerals  are  placed  before  cardinal :  Ex.  He^ebie 
flBa  naca,  the /?•<?/  two  hours. 

(7)  From  the  juxta-position  of  cases  similar  in  termination  an 
irregularity,  and  even  a  confusion  of  expression,  ensues  :  Ex.  OUT, 
nOHHTa.icfl    ecrbMti    eoucKOMti  6nbiTHbiMT>  H  xpa6pbiMi>  IKXIKOBOAUGMI,, 
He  was  considered  by  all  the  troops  an  experienced  and  brave  leader. 
In  order  to  avoid  such  a  fault,  the  words  must  either  be  transposed 
or  their  cases  changed  :  Ex.  OHT»  DOHHT&lca  80  eceMti  eoucKrb  onbii- 
HbiftTb  H  xpaSpbiMt  no.iKOB04ueMT>,  He  was  considered  in  the  whole 
army,  &c. 

(8)  Verbs  should  not  be  placed  at  the  end  of  the  proposition  : 
Ex.  OHT>  pasHbia  HayKH  SHdemz,  He  knows  various  sciences.    Instead 
of  this,  the  sentence  should  stand  thus,  OHT.  3ndem$,  &c.,  He  knows, 
&c.  This  rule  may  only  be  departed  from  when  the  whole  emphasis 
of  the  phrase  is  contained  in  the  verb  :  Ex.  ^o^pwxT.  .iio^eii  xedjinmti, 
a  S-ibixT,  npesupdjomz,  Good  people  sue  praised,  but  wicked  (people) 
are  despised  ;  &c. 

(9)  Adverbs  of  quality  are  placed  before  a  verb  when  a  com- 
plement or  a  subordinate  proposition  is  attached  to  it :  Ex.  Kpbi- 

OT.1H4HO     DHCaXb    6aCHH,    KOTOpbia,    6C3T>    COMHtflia,    Bbl    HHTajH 

pa3T>,  KrwilofF  wrote  fables  excellently,  which  doubtless 
you  have  read  several  times.  But  when  the  verb  is  unaccompanied 
by  a  complement,  adverbs  may  be  placed  after  it :  Ex.  KpbUOBT. 
nucEun.  omMuno,  Krwiloff  wrote  excellently. 

(10)  An  adverb  must  infallibly  be  placed  before  that  word  which 
it  qualifies :  Ex.  OHT,  coeepuienuo  KOHHH.II  HOBHM  nepeBoji,,  He  has 
completely  finished  (his)  new  translation,  &c.     If  this  rule  is  not 


(     103     ) 

observed,  and  if  the  adverb  is  transposed,  an  altogether  contrary 
signification  will  result :  Ex.  OHT>  KOBHO.IT>  coeepmeuno  HOBLIH  nepe- 
BO4T>,  He  has  finished  (his)  perfectly  new  translation. 

(11)  The  negative  adverb  ne  must  be  placed  before  that  word  to 
which  the  negation  refers  :  Ex.  OHT>  He  cero^Ha  6bLn>  y  6paia  a  snepa, 
He  was  not  at  (his)  brother's  to-day,  but  yesterday.     The  following 
arrangement  would  therefore   be  irregular  :  Oirb  He  6bJ.n>  cero^na  y 
6para  a  BHepa.     A   similar  rule   must  be  observed  with  all  words 
used  in  the  sense  of  adverbs.    Such  should  infallibly  be  placed  before 
the   words  to  which  they  relate  :  Ex.  HaB-fecTHie  MGHS,  no-Kpaihieft 
Mt>pi>,  o  SAOpoBKfe  BameMt,  Inform   me,  at  least,  about  your  health. 
This  sentence  would  have  a  directly  contrary  signification  were  it  to 
be  thus  written :  H3Bi>CTi';Te,  no  KpaHHeii  M^pi,  MCHH,  &c.,  Inform  me 
at  least,  &c. 

(12)  In  the  construction  of  conditional  or  prepositional  pro- 
positions with  impersonal  verbs,  or  with  adverbs,  to  the  conjunction 
6bi  is  added  the  past  tense  of  the  verb  fibimb :  Ex.  BaMt  no-iesHO 
GbiAO  6bi  nporyjHBaibca,  It  would  have  been  useful  to  you  to  take  an 
airing.     Many  offend  against  this  rule  by  expressing  the  phrase 
thus  :  BaMT)  nojiesno  6bi  nporyjLHBaiLca. 

(1#)  The  conjunction  6bi  must  not  be  used  in  one  and  the  same 
proposition :  Ex.  ECJH  6bi  a  Tatrb  KopoiKo  He  snaxb  6bi  Bact,  TO  He 
noBipHJi.  6bi  BaMT>,  If  I  had  not  so  intimately  known  you,  I  would 
not  have  believed  you.  Here  the  conjunction  6bi  should  only  be 
inserted  in  the  first  proposition,  after  the  word  ecJiu. 

(14)  One  and  the  same  word  should  not  be  often  repeated, 
especially  if  that  word  be  a  pronoun  :    Ex.    OHT,   Bb'iKynHJTi    uxt, 

B3HJ-b  UX$  KT>  Ce6i,  KOpMHJT,  UXti  KaKT,  C60UXV  A^TeM,  H  OTOC^aJT>  UXd  KT. 

pOAHTa!8MT>  uxti,  He  bought  them,  took  them  to  himself,  as  his  own 
children,  and  sent  them  away  to  their  parents. 

(15)  Words,  the  signification  of  which  is  contained   in   the 
preceding  word,  must  not  be  repeated  :  Ex.  CeiodumaHiu  dem  Kama 
pa66ia  doMO  npodojwajiaci),  To-day's  day  our  work  was  long  con- 
tinued,— should  be  Cero^Ha  Hama  pa66ia  6bua  npOflO.UKMTe,!bHa,  'I'o- 
day  our  work,  &c.     Such  a  fault  is  called  &  pleonasm. 

(16)  Expressions  should  not  be  turned  in  a  way  that  is  foreign 
to  the  Russian  language :  Ex.  Bbi  cJHiiiKOM'b  eme  Mo^o^bi,  4i66bi 
saHi'iib  cio.ib  BaffiHVK)  ^ojJKHOCTb,  You  are  still  too  young  to  undertake 
such  an  important  duty.     Such  turnings  of  phrase  appertain  to  the 


(     104     ) 

French  language.  In  Russian  they  should  be  expressed  thus  :  BH 
eme  TaK'L  MOJOABI,  HTO  ne  MojKeie  sanm,  &c.  An  error  of  this  kind 
is  called  a  gallicism. 

IV.  PUNCTUATION. 

§  192.  The  signs  of  punctuation  serve  to  illustrate  the  coupling 
or  disconnecting  of  propositions  and  their  parts. 

§  193.  The  signs  of  punctuation  (suant  npemmaHia)  are:  — 
(1)  comma,  3anaiaa  ( , )  —  (2)  semicolon,  Tonna  ct  aanaiOH  ( ; )  — 
(3)  colon,  ABoeioqie  ( : )  —  (4)  full  stop,  xoiKa  ( . )  —  (5)  point  of 

suspension,   MnoroToiie  ( )  —  (6)  note   of  admiration,  3HaKT> 

BOCKJBUaTeJBHblfi  (!)  —  (7)  note  of  interrogation,  3Hain>  Bonpocii- 
Te.ibHbiH  (?)  —  (8)  hyphen,  nepia  or  xnpe  ( -  )  —  (9)  parenthesis, 
CKooKa  or  3HaKT>  BMicTHTe.ii>Hi>iii  (  ) —  (10)  inverted  commas,  ^Byaanaiaa 
or  BuocHbiii  3eaKT>  ( "  "  ). 

§  194.  The  comma  is  placed — 

(1)  Between  two  or  more  subjects  and  predicates  which  are 
not  connected  by  conjunctions  :  Ex.  BesyBiii,  9iHa  H  Feiua  cyib  orHe- 
Abiiuamia  ropbi  BT>  Espont,  Vesuvius,  Etna  and   Hecla  are  the  vol- 
canic mountains  of  (lit.  in)  Europe ;  &c. 

(2)  When  the  following  conjunctions  are  repeated,  u,  uu,  ujiu : 
Ex.  If  AOJKflL.  u  CHf>ri>,  HIJH,  Both  rain  and  snow  fell,  &c. ;  Oflt  He 
yM'ieii,  HU  MHiaib,  uu  nacaTb,  He  can  neither  read  nor  write;  Bbi 
u*iu  He  MOF.IH,  ujiu  He  xorLm  aioro  CAijaib,  You  either  could  not,  or 
did  not  wish,  to  do  this. 

(3)  When  the  conjunction  u  couples  the  main  propositions  with 
the  various  subjects  :  Ex.  B'b  TOTT,  4CHb  paapasiuacb  yjKacuaa  6ypa,  u 
ripOJHBHofi  ^OiK^b  3aionH.n>  Muoria  y^HUbi,  On  that  day  broke  a  ter- 
rible storm,  and  heavy  rain  flooded  many  streets.     But  when  the 
conjunction  u  couples  two  principal  propositions  which  relate  to  one 
and  the  same  subject,  the  comma  is  not  inserted  :  Ex.  TaMT>  CBH- 
pi>ncTBOBa.!a  cMbnaa  6ypa  u  nponsBo^iba   cipauiubia   onycTomenia, 
There  a  violent  storm  raged  and  produced  frightful  desolation. 

(4)  A  comma  is  placed  before  the  conjunction  u  when  the  latter 
of  two  propositions  comprises  the  result  of  Me  first,  and  when   after 
the  conjunction  u  are  understood  the  conjunctions  noiOMy,  orroro : 
Ex.  H  ceroAHa  Miioro  xoAHJn>j  u  (ommoto)  ycia.n>,  I  have  walked  much 
to-day,  and  (hence]  I  am  tired,  &c. 

(5)  If  for  the  conjunction  u  the  conjunctions  KaK'b  H,  Tain.  H,  can 


(     105    ) 

be  substituted,  then  a  comma  is  not  placed  before  u :  Ex.  Tpy^bi  AO- 
CTdBUJiu  eiay  u  cjaBy  u  cocToaaie,  ( His)  labours  brought  him  loth  fame 
and  fortune, — instead  of  KOKV  cjaey,  manti  u  cocTOflHie. 

(6)  Before  the  conjunction  ujiu,  when  it  signifies  explanation  : 
Ex.  Fe^LBeuifl,  ujiu  lIlBeiiuapia  expand  ropHciaa,  Helvetia  or  Switzer- 
land  (is  a)   mountainous  country.     But  when   EUH  is  used    in    a 
disjunctive  sense,  the  comma  is  not  used :  Ex.  OHT>  JKC-iaxb  6bi  ixait 
BI>  FepMaiiiK)  UM  IlTa.iiK),  He  wished  that  he  might  go  to  Germany 
or  to  Italy. 

(7)  In  short  propositions  before  the  conjunctions  a  and  HO  : 
Ex.  Om>   npflxoAFLTb  KT>  saMT>,  HO  BH  yiKe  yfcxaja,  He  came  to  you, 
but  you  had  already  gone  away  ;  &c. 

(8)  With   two   or   more  qualifying   adjectives  without   con- 
junctions :  Ex.  CBea6opn>  ecib  meepnan,  ipoman,   u  HenpncTynnas 
KpimocTb,  Sveaborg  is  a  solid,  imposing,  and  impregnable  fortress. 
But  when  one  of  the  adjectives  is  a  possessive  or  circumstantial 
adjective,  the  comma  is  not  inserted  :  Ex.  Bnepawniu  npikmnbiii 
BeHep"B,  Yesterday's  pleasant  evening. 

(9)  Between  commas  are  placed  all  the  annexes  of  the  subject 
and   of  the  predicate,    as  also   the  subordinate   and  introductory 
propositions  and  words  :  Ex.  Bann>  ipy4i>,  Kcuwemcfi,  npnxo^HrL  KT> 

y,  Your  labour,  it  seems,  approaches  the  end. 

Obs.  1. — Participles,  gerunds,  the  pronouns  KOiopbiH,  KOH,  Ka- 
KOH,  KTO,  HTO,  the  adverbs  KaKt-io,  TO-eciB,  HanpnM'BpT>,  KpoMt, 
and  the  conjunctions  HTO,  Sy^TO,  ecjn,  TO,  HejKejH-H-BMt,  KpoMl), 
KaKt,  require  a  comma  to  be  placed  before  them,  as  also 
words  which  separate  the  subordinate  from  the  main  pro- 
position. If,  however,  a  participle  is  employed  as  an  adjective, 
and  a  gerund  as  an  adverb,  a  comma  is  not  inserted :  Ex. 
^eiOB-Bia  mpydku^iitcfi  He  3naen.  CKVKH,  The  man  who  labours 
does  not  know  dullness;  OHT.  MHTaen,  cmon,  He  reads  (whilst) 
standing. 

Obs.  2. — The  subject,  the  predicate,  and  the  copula,  are  not 
separated  by  signs  of  punctuation  :  Ex.  A^nbi  nonphiTbi  CITE- 
roMT.,  The  Alps  (are)  covered  with  snow,  &c.  Neither  are 
definitions  or  complements  divided  from  their  principal  parts  : 
Ex.  BepiuiiHbi  ivmornx'b  A-mificKHX-b  ropi.  noKpuibi  B^mbiM-b 
CHl>roMT>  it  jbAOMT>,  The  summits  of  many  Alpine  mountains 
(are)  covered  with  perpetual  snow  and  ice. 


(     106     ) 

(10)  The  adverbs  BO-nepBLixi,  BO-BiopHXt,  &c.,  and  the  con- 
junction HaKOHeiri,  are  separated  by  commas  :  fix.  Bo»nep6bl£1i,  BBI 
H3£ep)KHTe  xyrb  MHOFO  4eHen>,  a  eo-emopbixv,  noTepaeie  MHOFO  spe- 
MCHH,  Firstly  you  there  spend  much  money,  and  secondly  you  lose 
much  time ;  JlaKone^,  OHT,  pimHJca  ixaib  Bt  flepeBHK),  At  last  he 
decided  to  ride  to  the  village. 

(11)  If  nouns  in  the  vocative  case  are  found  in  the  middle  of 
a  sentence,  they  are  separated  by  commas :  Ex.  Krb  BaMT>,  MuJocmu- 
6biu  locydapb,  oSpamaiocL  ci.  npocbta),  To  you,  dear  sir,  I  turn  with 
a  request.     But  when  a  sentence  begins  or  ends  with  a  noun  in  the 
vocative  case,  after  that  noun  notes  of  admiration  will  be  put :  Ex. 
MuJiocmuebiu  Focyddpb !  noaBoJbie  oGpaiMTbca  KT.  BaMi>,  &c.,  Dear 
sir  !  allow  me  to  turn  towards  you,  &c. 

§  195.  A  semicolon  divides  one  proposition  from  another: — 

(1)  When  its  several  parts  have  been  already  separated  by 
commas :  Ex.  To-inb'i   jKHiejea  6iffiain  H3T>  orHa,  DOJKH  pyccnie  IIIJH 
BT>oroHb  ;  04HH  cnacajH  JKH3Hb,  apyrie  HCOIH  ee  na  jnepiBy, — Crowds 
of  inhabitants  fled  from  the  fire,  Russian  regiments  went  into  it ; 
some  saved  their  lives,  others  sacrificed  them. 

(2)  In  abrupt  speech,  when  the  main  propositions  are  expressed 
briefly,  and  do  not  depend  on  each  other :     Ex.  Hpo/KurOBaTbiMH 
ocipOBaMH   paaSpocaebi  HeSo-ibmia  pomn  ;  orb  AepeBHH  40  AepeBna 
6tryi5   yam  ^opoJKKH ;    uepKBH   S^-Biorb, — In   (shape  like)   oblong 
islands    are   scattered  small  groves;    from  village  to  village   run 
narrow  paths ;  the  churches  look  white. 

§  196.  A  colon  is  placed — 

(1)  In  the  middle  of  the  proposition,  before  the  explanation  of 
any  of  the  parts  or  appellations:  Ex.  MeJOB'feK'b  HM-kerb  naib  BfliniHnx'b 
HVBCTBT.  :  apinie,  c.iyx'b,  BRVCI,  o6oii;;iiie  H  ocaaanie, — Man  has  fire 
exterior  senses  :  sight,  hearing,  taste,  scent  and  touch ;  &c. 

(2)  Before  quoted   or   foreign  words  :  Ex.  Pyccnaa   noc^OBHua 
roBOpirrb :  "  yneHbe  cfiirb   a   neyneHbe  TbMa," — A  Russian  proverb 
says  :  "  learning  (is)  light,  and  ignorance  (is)  darkness/' 

(3)  Before  a  subordinate  proposition,  when  it  comprises  in  itself 
the  explanation  of  the  causes  or  results  of  the  action,  expressed  in 
the  main  proposition,  and  when  with  this  may  be  placed   the  con- 
junction noTOMY-HTO  :   Ex.  OHT,  yfrfcjihca  BT>  HeBOSMOJKBOCTH   >KHTb  BT> 


(     107     ) 


craiuirfe  :  doxo/jbi  ero  YMeiibiiia.iHCb,  a  jy^cxo^bi  yBe.!HHHBaunci>,  —  He 
convinced  himself  of  the  impossibility  of  living-  in  the  capital:  his 
income  decreased,  and  his  expenditure  increased.  This  sentence  can 
be  thus  expressed  :  nomoMy-umo  40x6451  ero  yineiibiiiajiHCb,  &c. 

§  197.  The  full-slop  is  placed  — 

(1)  At  the  end  of  the  sentence  or  proposition  which  comprises 
in  itself  complete  meaning1.      (See  Ex.  §  175.) 

(2)  After  separate   words   not  possessed    of  any  grammatical 
bond.     For  example,  the  table  of  contents  of  books,  or  circulars  : 

0  npaeaxi)  B0o6me,  about  rights  generally,  &c. 

(3)  With   shortened  words  :   Ex.  HB.   ToHHapOB'b,  Ivan  Gon- 
teharoff,  &c. 

§  198.  Points  of  suspension  are  inserted  to  mark  some  unexpected 
interruption  of  speech  :  Ex.  KaKoe-io  npe^HyBCTBie  Mena  ycipa- 
maeT'L  ....  HO,  HfrrL,  310  Meiia  !  Some  sort  of  presentiment  distresses 
me  .....  but,  no,  it  is  a  dream  ! 

§  199.  A  note  of  interrogation  is  placed  after  a  question:  KTO 
npHiiie.n>?  Who  has  come?  &c. 

§  200.  A  note  of  admiration  is  placed  wherever  a  wish,  command, 
prohibition,  are  indicated,  and  also  after  interjections  :  Ex.  HCHOJHH 
CKOpM  !  CMHPHO  !  Do  (it)  quickly  !  Silence  !  Intense  surprise  is 
sometimes  indicated  by  a  double  note  of  admiration  (!!),  and  strong 
doubt  by  a  double  note  of  interrogation  (??)  . 

§  201.  A  hyphen  is  placed  — 

(1)  Whenever  any  word  has  been  omitted:    Ex.  SaKOHt  MOH  — 
,  My  law  (is  the)  truth  ;  EorL-MOii  man,,  God  (is)  my  shield. 

(2)  In  the  case  of  some  unexpected  change  of  speech  :  Ex. 
Kpsuocb  —  H  B4pyn>,  Kain>  6yAio  6bi  HST.  rjy60Hbi  a^a,  sapest-ia 

6ypa  —  The  sun  was  hid,  and  suddenly,  as  if  from  the  depths  of  hell, 
began  to  roar  the  tempest. 

(3)  Between  the  speeches  of  two  persons  when  they  are  not 
named  :  Ex.  ^liM'b  TH  3aHHMaeinca  ?     ^niaio  Hciopiio  KapaM3ima.  — 
KoTopwii  TOMT,?     4B^fl^^aTI)I^-     With  what  art  thou   occupied? 

1  am  reading  Karamzin's  history.  —  Which  volume  ?    The  twelfth. 


(    108    ) 

§  202.  Words  or  whole  illustrative  passages  are  placed  within 
parentheses :  Ex.  MomiaH'b  (6tb«ian  zopd)  ecib  BbicoHanmaa  H3t  rop'L 
BI>  Efiponi,  Mont  Blanc  (the  white  mountain)  is  the  highest  mountain 
in  Europe,  &c. 

§  203.  Inverted  commas  are  placed  in  order  to  distinguish  quoted 
or  foreign  words  that  are  used  in  the  sentence :  Ex.  EKaiepima 
Biopaa  CKaaaia :  "  .lyHine  npocii'iTb  #ecaTb  BHHOBHbixt  H^MT.  HaKaaaib 
ojfloro  HeBHimaro."  Catherine  II.  said :  "  It  is  better  to  pardon 
ten  criminals  than  to  punish  one  innocent  person."  &c. 


THIRD     PART. 

enie  nipeiie). 


ORTHOGRAPHY. 

§  204.  Orthography  treats  of  the  regular  use  of  words  in 
writing. 

§  205.  The  chief  rules  of  orthography  consist  in  the  proper  use 
of  letters  and  of  separate  words,  and  in  the  correct  division  of 
syllables. 

^  206.  Letters,  according  to  their  delineation,  are  capitals 
(npOHHCHaa)  and  linear 


USE  OF  CAPITALS. 
§  207.  Capital  letters  are  written  — 

(1)  At  the  beginning  of  each  sentence. 

(2)  After  a  full  stop. 

(3)  After  a  colon  when  inverted  commas  appear  in  the  pro- 
position :  Ex.  CyBopOBT>  oififriajT.  :  "  H  anaio  KyiyaoBtf,  a  Kyiy30B& 
3HaeiT>  Meim  ;"  —  SoovorofF  answered:    '  '  I   know  Kootoozoif,    and 
Kootoozoff  knows  me." 

(4)  After  notes  of  interrogation   and   of  admiration,  if  the 
meaning   of   the   sentence   is   finished  :    Ex.  Tbi    Hiqeiiib   fiipuaro 


(     109    ) 

CHaciia  ?  Dost  thou  seek  true  happiness  ?     Il^eMi  Ha  BparoBT>  !  Let 
us  go  against  the  enemy  ! 

(5)  At  the  beginning  of  every  verse. 

(6)  In    nouns    relating   to    the    Divinity  :    Ex.    Eon>,    God  ; 
Co3AaTej&,  Creator  ;  HpOBH/rfiHie,  Providence  ;  &c. 

(7)  In  the  names  of  Saints:  Ex.  AnocTO.n>,  Apostle;  HpopoKT,, 
Prophet  ;  IIpe^Teqa,  Forerunner  ;  &c. 

(8)  In  Proper  Names:   Ex.  AjCKcaHflpt,  Alexander;    Mapi>a, 
Mary;  «/I6HAOin>,  London  ;  ^H^np-i^Dneiper;  BesyfiiM,  Vesuvius,  &c. 

(9)  In  adjectives  employed  as  proper  names  :  Ex.  PoccificKaa 
Hinnepia,  Russian  Empire;  lepnoe  Mope,  Black  Sea,  &c. 

(10)  In  various  words    used   in  the  sense  of  proper    nouns  ; 
such,  for  instance,  as  the  names  of  ships,  of  streets,  of  bridges,  &c. 

(11)  The  name,  patronymic,  and  title  of  the  ruling  Emperor, 
and  of  the  whole  of  the  most  august  House  are  written  in  full, 
in   capital  letters:   Ex.  EfO   IIMIIEPATOPCKOE   BEJHqECTBO 


His  Imperial  Majesty  the  Sovereign  Emperor  Alexander,  Son  of 
Alexander,  &c.  Likewise  the  adjectives  which  refer  to  the  Sovereign  : 
Ex.  BhlCOqififflltt,  Most  High,  &c. 

Obs.  —  The  initial  letters  only  of  the  names  and  titles  of  foreign 
ruling  personages  are  written  with  capital  letters  :  Ex.  Ero 
MMnepaTOpcKoe  H  Kopo^eBCKoe  Be^MHeciBO  IhinepaTOp-b  Tep- 
MaHCKiH  H  KopoJL  IIpyccKiH  BnjbreJibMT),  His  Imperial  and 
Kingly  Majesty  the  German  Emperor  and  Prussian  King 
William,  &c. 

(12)  In  pronouns  relating  to  the  person  of  the  Emperor  and 
of  his  House  :  Ex.  Ef6  BEJIiqECTBO,  BO  BpeMs  npeSbiBaHia  Cfioero 
BI>  I(apcKOMT>  Ce^i'fe,  nOBeirfejn>  AOCiaBiiTB  Kt  HeMy  OT^CTLI,  His  Majesty, 
during  his  stay  at  the  Royal  village,  ordered  (them)  to  send  reports 
to  him,  &c. 

(13)  In   letters   and   business   papers   all   titles  —  like   Knast, 
prince;    rpa^t,  count;   6ap6m>,  baron—  ranks,  names,  and  offices, 
when  a  person  is  indicated  by  such  :  Ex.  Feaepai^  <$eJBjM&pmaxi. 
KHH3b   BapaTHHCKiM,    General   Field-Marshal    Prince    Baryatinski; 
Kaim.iepT>  KnasL  FopHaKOB'B,  Chancellor  Prince  Gortchakoff,  &c.     In 
the  same  way  when  addressing  persons  of  these  ranks  :  Ex.  Bame 


(    no   ) 

Cmie-ibCTBO,  Your  Serene  Highness;  Ero  IIpeBocxoflHTe.!bCTBo,  His 
Excellency ;  Ero  Ejaropo^ie,  His  Honour ;  Ero  IIpeocBamencTBO,  His 
Eminence ;  and  the  complimentary  designations  used  in  writing : 
MibocTHBbiH  Tocyflapb  H  Focno/tnH'b,  Dear  Sir  and  Mister,  &c.  For 
the  sake  of  politeness,  pronouns  which  relate  to  the  second  person 
are  put  in  capital  letters :  Ex.  fl  npocfLTb  £ac$  o  ^ocxaBJieeiH  MH-fc 
BauiHX'b  ruaHOBT),  I  asked  you  regarding  the  furnishing  to  me  of 
your  plans. 

(14)  The  initial  letters  of  adjectives  relating  to  God  and  His 
Saints:  Ex.  BceBbiiuia,  Most  High;    BceduBHbiH,  Most  Mighty; 
IIpenoAoSHbiM,  Reverend ;  &c. 

(15)  The  initial  letters  of  the  designations   of  governments 
and  tribunals:  Ex  Focy^apCTBeeHbiH  CoB-irb,  State  Council;  Dpa- 
Bi'iTe.ibCTByiomiM  CeHarB,  Executive  Senate;  KaHqaiapia  MaHHCTepcTBa 
BHyipeHHHX-b  fr^Ai*,  Chancellory  of  the  Ministry  of  Home  Affairs;  &c. 

( 1 6)  The  initial  letters  of  the  titles  of  scientific  and  educational 
institutions  :  Ex.  AKa^eMJa  HayKi,  Academy  of  Sciences  ;  Mnnepa- 
.lorHHecKoe  OomeciBO,  Mineralogical  Society;    FopnbiH  HHCTHiyi'L, 
Mining  Institute ;   &c. 

Obs. — The  rules  in  clauses  11,  12,  15  and  16  are  observed  in 
petitions  and  in  business  papers  generally. 

(17)  In  the  initial  letters  of  the  titles  of  books:  Ex.  Ilvie- 
mecTBie  Bonpyrb  CBirra,  Travels  Round  the  World ;  &c. 

(18)  In  the    initial   letters   of  the  names  of  festivals  :    Ex. 
CBtuoe  BocKpeceme,  Easter  Sunday;    BjaroB^meHie,  The  Annun- 
ciation ;  POJKACCTBO  XpHCTOBO,  Christmas  Day,  lit.  Birth  of  Christ. 

(19)  In  the  initial  letters  of  the  names  of  orders  :  Ex.  Op4eflT> 
no£BH3KH,  Order  of  the  Garter  ;  &c. 

(20)  In  the  initial  letters  of  the  characters  in  fables,  &c. : 
Ex.  OflHaiKAbi  Je6eAb,  PaKi>,  H  myKa,  &c.,  Once  upon  a  time  a  swan, 
a  lobster,  and  a  pike  ;   &c. 

USE  OF  SMALL  LETTERS. 

^  208.  Rules  for  the  use  of  the  letter  a : — Nouns  ending  in  o,  140, 
M^e,  and  M^e,  have,  in  the  nominative  and  accusative  cases  of  the 
plural  number,  a :  Ex.  BOHCK#  armies,  OKH#  windows,  CTCHM^  glasses, 
persons,  cepAUrt  hep"ts,  y4H.inm#  schools,  3piunmtf  spectacles— 


(  111  ) 

not  BOHCKM,  OKHbij  &c.  The  exception  to  this  rule  is  HOJOKO  apple, 
which  makes  a6.!OKM.  But  all  the  diminutive  nouns  ending  in  KO 
and  i^e  have  u,  bi:  Ex.  sepHbiuiKO  grain,  plur.  sepiibiiiiKH. 
mirror 


§  209.  The  letter  3  in  the  prepositions  BOS,  H3,  HH3,  pas,  before 
the  letters  K,  a,  T,  x,  u,  H,  ill  and  m,  is  changed  into  c  :  Ex. 
BOCKjinuaHie  exclamation,  BOcnHTaiiHHin>  pupil,  Hcipeoirrb  to  destroy, 
HCXOAT>  exodus,  ncEvkienie  cure,  H£4e3aii>  to  disappear,  nponiuecTfiie 
occurrence,  ncmnnaTb  to  pinch. 

§  210.  The  letter  i  is  written  before  vowels  and  before  the  semi- 
vowel u  :  Ex.  npiflmoe  HSB'icrie  pleasant  news,  jKapiuH  iiojib  hot 
July,  &c.  Before  a  consonant  the  letter  i  is  written  in  the  word 
M?'pT>  universe,  and  in  all  words  derived  therefrom  —  Ex.  M/pCKOfi 
world,  BCCM/'pHbiii  universally,  B.iaflHMfl'p'b  Vladimir,  &c.  —  in  order  to 
distinguish  them  from  the  word  MMpT>,  peace,  and  its  derivatives. 
In  foreign  words  adopted  in  the  Russian  language,  after  the  letter  u, 
is  written  u,  and  not  bi  :  Ex.  iiw4>pa  cipher,  Me^HU^Ha  medicine, 
and  not  iw<i>pa  and  MCAimbma,  although  in  such  instances  the 
pronunciation  is  the  same. 

§  211.  Although  in  the  terminations  of  the  diminutive  and 
caressive  nouns  the  form  of  the  letter  e  is  preserved,  it  is  pro- 
nounced like  u.  Instead,  therefore,  of  writing  UBrfeTO4WKi>  blossom, 
is  written,  &c. 


§  212.  The  double  letter  en  is  found  at  the  beginning  of  the 
following  words  only,  and  their  derivatives :  CHaciie  prosperity, 
CHerb  account,  cnacLiMBbiH  fortunate,  «eciiaciflbiH  unfortunate,  pas- 
cnerb  calculation,  CHHiaib  to  count,  &c. 

§  213.  Rules  for  the  letter  ij : — This  letter  is  found  at  the 
beginning  of  two  radical  words  only,  viz.  lixaib  (I^AHTb)  to  ride  or 
drive,  tab  to  eat.  It  occurs  in  the  beginning  or  the  middle  of  the 
following  words  and  their  derivatives  : — 

' 
A.  oo.rfianb,  disease. 

April.  6P*ro  (from  Cpaib),  I  shave. 

6tci,  demon. 

6tcHTb,  to  drive  mad. 
diineHCTBO,  madness. 
61>raTb,  to  run. 
C^a,  woe. 

poor. 


B. 

Cect^a,  conversation. 
6ecl54Ka,  summer-house. 
6.iii,iMLiii,  pale. 


poverty. 
6'B.ibiii,  white. 

cataract  (in  the  eye). 
sturgeon. 


B. 

to  meet. 
to  know. 
,  to  taste. 
knowledge. 
Bl>40MOCTb,  intelligence. 
B'E^bMa,  witch. 
B'E/iUHBOCTb,  politeness. 
news. 


,  &c.,  confession. 
eyelids. 
B'EKO,  eyelid. 
century. 

eternal. 
,  eternity. 
Etna,  Vienna. 
fitiiciVb,  crown. 

B'EiioK'b,  wreath. 
B'BHHKT),  broom. 
BliHO,  dowry. 
B'fcpa,  faith. 

,  &c.,  to  believe. 
to  weigh. 
Btci>,  weight. 
B-BCIJ,  scales. 
B'EniaTb,  to  hang. 

HO  B'BCHTb,    ditto. 

aaatca,  curtain. 

verandah. 
branch. 
wind. 
to  announce. 

,  &c.,  to  inform. 
,  &c.,  to  visit. 
pole. 

BliJl'l'b,    tO  blow. 

Biepi,  fan. 

r. 

Fj'fedT),  proper  name. 
retBi,  anger. 

bay  (colour). 
nest. 
ropijKH,  a  game. 
rpaMOT-Bii,  learned  man. 
sin. 


A- 

,  Dneiper. 
,  Dneister. 

armour. 
4-BBa,  virgin. 
to  put. 

,  to  put  on. 

H3ji>BaTbCH,  &c.,  to  mock. 
,  grandfather. 

ie,  action. 
0,  business. 
e,  act. 
,  to  divide. 
onpej-BJHTb,  to  define. 
pa34l;,iHTb,  &c.,  to  separate. 
A"BT0,  children. 

at. 

glands. 
iron. 

3. 

aastca,  curtain. 
aaM^iauie,  observation. 
3iinaBl>c'b,  curtain. 

b,  commandment. 

b,  shyness. 
ie,  eclipse. 
axb,  to  project. 
3Bt34a,  star, 

SB-fipb,  wild  beast. 

/ 
3Mtfl,  serpent. 

Sp^JbiM,  ripe. 
3tBT>,  mouth. 

stBUTb,  to  yawn. 
3l>aiJija,  eyeball. 


Indian. 
,  turkey. 

K 

a,  cripple. 
room. 

cage. 
knee. 
,  strong. 


(     113     ) 


,  left. 
,  healer. 

b,  to  cure. 
(These  two  words  are  sometimes 
spelt  with  e  instead  of  H»,  but  the 
latter  is  more  regular.) 

t,  to  cuddle. 
,  idleness. 
HTb,  to  plaster. 
,  absurd. 

,  magnificent. 


.,  forest. 

j-Biiiiii,  forest  imp. 
jl>3Tb,  to  climb. 

j-ECTHHija,  staircase. 
JiTO,  summer. 

H 

Me4B-B4b,  bear  (from  Bt^an,  to 
know,  and  MeAT>,  honey). 
Mtflb,  copper. 
WE.!!),  chalk. 
Mima,  exchange. 
nepeMtea,  alteration. 
a,  &c.,  treason. 
measure. 


e,  hypocrisy. 

yM-EpeeeoCTb,  &c.,  moderation. 
HTb,  to  knead. 
cio,  place. 

aib,  to  insert, 
eaM'BCTHHKi,  viceroy. 
),  month,  or  moon. 
b,  to  mark. 

to  remark. 
b,  to  make  a  mark. 
),  fur. 

,  to  mix. 
,  mixture. 
Miraaib,  to  impede. 
DOM-BmaTejbCTBO,  folly. 
noM-fcxa,  &c»,  obstacle. 
oKi),  sack. 

burgess. 


H 

na4t.flTbOH,  to  hope. 

intention. 


eacji4CTBO,  inheritance. 
nac'CKosioe,  insert. 
bride. 

,  daughter-in-law, 
or  sister-in-law. 

,  week. 
eira,  indulgence. 
et4po,  womb. 
Htatnufi,  tender. 
Hiiwani,  proper  name. 
HtMecii,  German. 
H'EMo'fi,  dumb. 
Htxx,  no,  not. 

O 

OoptiaTb,  to  find. 

H3o6ptTdTi>,  to  invent. 

npiotiptiaTb,  to  acquire. 
06*41,  dinner. 
o6i4Hfl,  mass. 

06tTT),   VOW. 

pi'omise. 
.,  hut. 
answer. 


,  captivity. 
,  mildew. 
,  bald. 
no6-B4a,  victory. 
DOB'ET'b,  district. 
nojiao,  log  of  wood. 

,  Monday. 
b,  to  visit. 
npHB'ET.iHBOCTb,  affability. 
,  example. 
,  sweet  (not  salt). 
ntrifi,  piebald. 
ntHa,  froth. 
ntHfl,  punishment. 

,  denarius  (a  coin). 
song. 

yxii,  cock. 
nixoia,  infantry. 
iiliiiiiii,  pedestrian. 

,  pawn  (in  chess). 


pt4Kifi,  rare. 


,  radish, 
piaaib,  to  cut. 

npoptxa,  slit. 
p'E3Bbiii,  playful. 
ptSHoii,  carved. 
p1>K£,  river. 
P'tna,  turnip. 
p-ECHHija,  eyelid, 
ptib,  speech. 

Haptiie,  dialect. 
ptmHTb,  to  decide, 
ptraeio,  sieve. 

ptme'TKa,  grating. 
,  to  pour  forth. 


b,  reed,  pipe, 
i,  ferocious. 
cnt>;i;iii,  fresh. 

CBliTT),  light. 

cirtTi'iTb,  to  illuminate. 
CBlJia,  candle. 

npocfliuieHie,  &c.,  enlightenment. 
CJCBAT>,  track. 

to  follow, 
i,  &c.,  last. 
c.i'Iiiiuii,  blind, 
b,  laughter. 

I,  to  laugh. 
CMliuiiioii,  &c.,  laughable. 
CMtia,  estimate. 
CH'fir'b,  snow. 
cdstCTb,  conscience. 

advice, 
lie,  doubt, 
b,  neighbour. 

to  hasten, 
arrow. 
CTBHa,  wall, 
clraepx,  north. 
c'h^Jo,  saddle. 

CtCTb,   tO  Sit. 

ctAHHa,  greyness  (of  hair). 
c*Mfl,  seed, 
a,  vestibule, 
cover. 

b,  to  shade, 
cieo,  hay. 
cipa,  sulphur. 


ctpuft,  grey. 
ctTOBaib,  to  lament. 
c-BTb,  net. 
C^ib,  to  flog, 
ctaib,  to  sow. 


Te-itra,  cart. 
T-BJO,  body. 
T*eb,  shade. 
Ttcebift,  narrow. 

CTECHHTb,  &C.,    to  Crowd. 

T"ECTO,  dough, 
liraeib,  to  amuse, 
yiixa,  amusement. 


to  convince. 
,  district. 


bread. 

stye  (for  animals), 
xptex,  horse-radish. 


,  flower. 

to  blossom. 
,  flute. 
,  to  draw  off. 
to  heal. 
,  &c.,  to  cure. 
Hli.ib,  mark. 

,  to  aim. 
to  kiss. 
,  whole, 
price. 
,  chain, 
itt,  clinging. 

,  &c.,  to  cling  to. 
,  to  grow  stiff. 
>,  flail. 


H 

man. 


Words  which  have  the  letter  /b  retain  it  in  all  compound  and 
derivative  words  :  Ex.  siipa,  faith  ;  BtpyK),  I  believe ;  fiipK),  I  trust ; 
BijpHbifi,  faithful ;  BipiiocTb,  fidelity  ;  yfiipeHJe,  assurance  ;  yB'fepefl- 
HOCTb,  confidence ;  noB-fepeHHbiH,  agent ;  Bipoarie,  probability ;  40- 
CTOBijpHbiH,  authentic;  jerKOB'fepHbin,  credulous;  cyeflipie,  super- 
stition ;  &c.  Two  words  only  do  not  follow  this  rule,  viz.  HafliaTbCfl, 
to  hope,  and  OAiiBaTb,  to  dress ;  from  which  come  HafleaMa,  hope ; 
and  OAea^a,  clothing. 

The  letter  /&  is  written  in  the  syllable  «/6,  which  is  prefixed  to 
pronouns  and  adverbs  :  Ex.  H/&KTO,  W/&HTO,  «/&KOTOpbiH,  «/6CKOibKO, 
WftKor^a ;  but  the  word  Henor^a,  want  of  leisure,  is  written  with  e. 

In  the  following  instances  the  letter  /&  appears  at  the  end  and  in 
the  middle  of  words  ; — 

(1)  In  the  dative  and  prepositional  cases  of  nouns  substantive 
terminating  in  a  and  a  :  Ex.  Giyr/6,  to  a  servant ;  o  cy^fc/S,  about 
a  judge.     Excepting  those  nouns  which  end  in  in :   Ex.  Pocciff, 
which  has  Poccin  and  o  POCCIH,  &c. 

(2)  In  the  prepositional  case  of  nouns  which  end  in  u,  5  and  &  of 
the  masculine  gender :  Ex.  BT>  IIOKO/&,  in  peace ;  npa  CTOJ/&,  at  a  table ; 
BT>  OFH/&,  in  the  fire.     Also  in  the  prepositional  case  of  nouns  which 
end  in  o  and  e :  Ex.  Ha  OKH/&,  on  the  window ;  BT>  noj/6,  in  the  field, 
but  those  ending  in  ie  take  u  ;  thus,  BT»  HMimit*,  in  possession;  o  ptiiie- 
mu,  about  the  decision. 

(3)  In  the  comparative  and  superlative  degrees  which  terminate 
in  ne  and  Tbtiwiu  :  Ex.  CBfa/se,  CBi>T.i/6HiiiiH. 

(4)  In  the  numerals  O^H/&,  AB/&,  66/6,  ^B/bHa^uaTB,  #B/&CTH.     In 
the  first  and  third  of  these  examples  the  letter  /&  appears  in  all  the 
cases. 

(5)  In  the  dative  and  prepositional  cases  of  the  pronouns  H,  TLI, 
ceoa  ;  thus,  MH/6,  ie6/6,  o  ce6/6. 

(6)  In  the  instrumental  case,  singular  number,  of  the  pronouns 

KTO,  TITO,  TOT'B,  BeCb  ;    thus,  K/6MT.,  H/bMl,  T76MT>,  BC/6MT>. 

(7)  In  all  the  cases  of  the  plural  number  of  the  pronouns  TOTB 
and  Beet. 

(8)  In  the  nominative  case,  plural,  of  the  fern,  form   of  the 
pronoun  of  the  third  person  :  OHa,  <mi. 

(9)  In  verbs,  the  first  person  of  the  present  tense  of  which  ends 
in  ibto,  the  letter  n  occurs  in  all  the  tenses  and  moods,  except  of  6pHTb, 


to  shave  :  Ex.  CM^TB,  to  dare,  CM/&K),  CM/MT>,  CM/&H.  And  likewise  in 
all  words  derived  from  these  verbs  :  Ex.  CM/&JOCTL,  CM/MMH,  CM/&Jb- 
HaK'B,  daring,  bold,  bold  fellow,  &c. 

(10)  Except  the  three  verbs,  vMepeib  to  die,    xepeib  to  rub, 
nepeib  to  push,  and   its  derivatives,  sanepeifc  to  lock,  ownepeib  to 
unlock,  all  have  Tb  instead  of  e  before  the  termination  m&  of  the   in- 
finitive mood  :  Ex.  CMOip/Sib,  XOT/&TB,  BHA/&TI>.    These  verbs  have  also 
Tb  before  the   terminations  M  of  the  past  tense,  indicative  mood  : 
JSk.  CMOTp/6,n>,  xoT/£jn>,  BHA/6JH..     The  participles  and  gerunds,  and 
also  all  words  derived  from  these  verbs,  likewise  maintain  the  letter 
rb  :  Ex.  B6^/6Bniiw,  #BHA/&BT>,  BHA/Sme,  npmvtHbRie,  npomw'bme. 

(11)  In  the  adverbs  B634/&,  BH/&,  rfl/&,  40KOJ/&,  40TOJ/&,  3A/&cb,  K.POM/&, 

EblR/b,  OTCOI/&,  nOAI/b,  BnOJH/6,  B03.I/&,    BnpaB/&,    BJl/&Bfl>,    BCKOp/&,    HaKa- 

Hyn/6,  HaeAHH/6,  DOCJ/&.  Likewise  in  nouns  adjective  formed  from 
these  adverbs  :  Ex.  BH/6iimiH,  3Aft>iimiH,  hblBfbilBift,  &c. 

The  letter  /&  also  appears  before  it  in  the  terminations  of  the 
following  nouns  —  Afi^/Sfi,  A.I6KC/6H,  Cepr/&H,  Maie/Mi,  rpaMomii,  and 
in  the  derivatives  of  the  verbs  4/b.iaib  and  ATbficTBOBaib,  such  as 


\  214.  The  letter  Tb  is  not  written  in  the  following  cases  :— 

(1)  In  the  middle  of  words,  after  the  letters  r,  K,  x,  JK,  H,  m,  m, 
except  in  the  case  of  the  two  pronouns  K/&MT>  and  (i/bMT>. 

(2)  When  the  letter  e  is  pronounced  like  e  (iio  or  o)  : 
men,   n^ej-b.       Exceptions  :  —  Substantives  :  rH^a^a 

Verbs  :  oop/6ai>,  and  ijB/6.n>,  and  their  compounds 


(3)  In  the  designations  of  races,  terminating  in  ne  :  Ex.  Gia- 
,  Slavs  ;  PoccL&Mtf,  Russians  ;  ApM««£,  Armenians  ;  &c. 

(4)  In  foreign  words  received  into  the  Russian  language  ;  — 
except  Anp/tab,  April  ;  B/6Ha,  Vienna  ;  and  their  derivatives. 

Obs.  —  In  order  to  avoid  mistakes  in  the  use  of  Tb  in  words 
wherein  the  letter  e  also  occurs,  it  should  be  observed  that  w 
represents  the  sound  on  which  rests  the  accent  :  Ex.  .iej/6flTb, 
to  fondle  ;  ie.itt>ra,  eart  ;  c/Sfiep'b,  north  ;  lI/&Mem>,  German  ; 
JK6JI/&30,  iron  ;  nepeM/&Ha,  change  ;  &c. 

§  215.  The   Greek  letter  Q  appears   only  in  the  beginning  of  the 
following  Russian  words:   9&  !  #Ton>,  #XT>!  aKoii,  ^iaKT>,  (?'raKOH,  and 


in  the  beginning  and  middle  of  foreign  words  introduced  into  the 
Russian    language  :    Ex.   $xo,   0KBaTOpi>,  3K3aMein>,  0Taan>,    noaMa, 

UOdTb,  &C. 

§  216.  The  letter  <9,  in  pronunciation  like  $,  appears  in  words 
introduced  into  Russian  from  the  Greek  :  (Ex.  A0HHbi  Athens, 
GepMoniLibi  Thermopylae,  &c.),  and  also  in  words  taken  from  the 
Latin  or  the  French.  In  such  it  stands  for  th  :  Ex.  9c6»6pb  Esther, 
0e#oprb  Th(3odor,  00Ma  Thomas,  &c. 

§  217.  The  letters  5  and  &  mark  the  distinction  in  the  pro- 
nunciation of  those  words  ending  either  in  the  one  or  the  other. 
The  former  gives  a  hard  articulation  :  Ex.  cmi5  table,  iiiecTS  pole, 
Mai&  mate;  but  the  letter  &  gives  'a  soft  utterance:  Ex.  cmi&  so 
much,  so  many,  iflecT&  six,  MaT&  mother.  The  semi-vowels  &  and  & 
after  the  sibilant  letters  5K,  H,  ill,  m,  mark  no  kind  of  distinction  in 
pronunciation  :  Ex.  HOIKS  knife,  pOJK&  rye,  M6H5  sword,  TC4&  to  flow, 
KaMbims  reed,  Mbiui&  mouse.  In  such  cases  it  must  be  observed  that 
all  nouns  of  the  masculine  gender  take  5  after  the  sibilant  letters 
above  enumerated  :  Ex.  pyoeara  border,  jyqg  ray,  iuK>45  key,  epaH5 
doctor,  madams  hut,  ruams  cloak,  ri  JK)m&  ivy,  &c.  The  same  remark 
applies  to  the  patronymic  nouns:  Ex.  HfiaHOBuqs,  MiixaiiJOBHH&, 
Herpeses,  &c.  But  nouns  of  the  feminine  gender  terminate  in  &  : 
Ex.  poJK&  rye  HOHS  night,  nyCTOHi&  waste  ground,  noMom&  aid. 
After  the  u  in  the  middle  of  a  word,  6  is  not  written  :  Ex. 
daughter,  xo'/na  point,  stop,  ne^Ka  oven,  nTH*/Ka  bird,  &c. 


§  218.  The  letter  5  occurs  in  the  genitive  case,  plural,  of  nouns 
ending  in  a,  o,  and  up  :  Ex.  cjym  c^yrs,  OKHO  OKOH&,  y  inhume 
Y4iLiHm5;  likewise  in  the  same  case  and  number  of  the  following 
words  :  —  Tbica^a  TbicaHS,  cajKen&  caaiees  ;  and  in  certain  cases, 
singular  and  plural,  of  the  masculine  and  neuter  forms  of  the 
pronouns  Hauitf  and  Bains. 

§  219.  The  letter  b  occurs  — 

(1)  In  the  infinitive  mood  of  active  and   neuter  verbs:   Ex. 
CMOTpf)T&,    6i>raT&.      Likewise    before    the    suffix   en    in    reflective, 
reciprocal,  and  common  verbs  :   Ex.  XBa.iHT&Cfl,  cpaiKai&ca,  HaA'taT&ca. 

(2)  (a)  In  the  2nd  person  singular  of  the  present  and  future 
tenses,  indicative  mood,  of  active  and  neuter  verbs  :  Ex.  BMAUIII&, 

;  —  (6)  in  the  1st  and  2nd  person  singular,  and  2nd  person. 


plural,  of  the  present  and  future  tenses  of  reflective,  reciprocal,  and 
common  verbs  :  Ex.  XBajibc&,  XBajHiu&ca,  XBajHiec&,  &c. 

(3)  In  the  2nd  person  of  both  numbers   of  the   imperative 
mood  :  Ex.  ociaB&,  ociaB&ie,  &c.     Exception  :  perfect  aspect  of  the 
verb  .IOJKHT&CH,  .iurb,  which   in  the  2nd  person  plural  of  the  im- 
perative mood  makes  jrarre. 

(4)  Words  taken  from  foreign  languages,  after  the  letter  A 
have  &  :  Ex.  A-i&nbi  the  Alps,  aj&rb  (musical  term  alto),  6pfu&/fHTi» 
brilliant,  &c. 

PROPER  USE  OF  SEPARATE  WORDS. 
§  220.  The  negative  adverb  He  is  written  separately  — 

(1)  Before  possessive  and   circumstantial  adjectives  :    Ex.  ue 
pyccKia,  ne  SCXIOTOH,  He  a/jimma,  He  BHepanmiH,  &c. 

(2)  Before  numerals  :  Ex.  ne  o^HHt,  He  BnepBbiH,  &c. 

(3)  Before  the  pronouns  :  Ex.  He  OHT>,  He  Hann>,  ne  TOTL,  &c. 

(4)  Before  verbs  and  adverbs:   Ex.  ne  BHHCV,  He  jK6Jan>,  ne 
,  He  jKCJaa,  &c. 


§  221.  The  negative  adverb  He  is  written  conjointly  — 

(1)  With    nouns    adjective,   and    adverbs    of    quality:    Ex. 
HeGoraibiH  poor,  weBeceJbiH  sad,  weSoraio  poorly,  «esecedo  sadly. 

Obs.  —  If  adverse  conjunctions  precede  adjectives  or  adverbs  of 
quality,  the  negative  adverb  He  is  written  separately  :  Ex.  He 
6oraibiH  HO  CWTHWH  o6i>Ai>>  not  a  rich,  but  a  copious  dinner; 
OHO  xoifl  He  Bece.io  HO  no^esflO,  although  (it  is)  not  cheerful, 
yet  (it  is)  useful. 

(2)  With  participles:  Ex.  «03aBHcamiii  ^dependent,  W^BHJKHMMM 
mmoveable,  &c. 

(3)  The  negative  adverb  He  is  written  conjointly  with  words 
which  either  have  no  signification  of  their  own,  as  Hexyrb  sickness, 
«(?JK)AHM1>    misanthrope,    w^qeciHBbiK    impious,    w/naBHCTt  hatred, 
«6jHacibe  bad  weather;  —  or  else  an  altogether  different    meaning, 
as   WtfuapiiHeHHbiH  unutterable,    /^npaB^a  untruth,  it  is  not  true, 
KiopUT&U  enemy,   «<?noKopHOCiUb  disobedience. 

§  222.  The  particle  HU  is  written  conjointly  only  with  the 
following  words  :  /mKio,  wwKaKOH,  Hnixk,  wwKy^a,  /mKaKt,  WMKor^a.  In 
all  other  instances  it  is  written  separately  :  Ex.  HH  CKOJbKO,  HH  Majo  : 
OHT>  ne  yM^en*  HU  HHiaib  HU  DHcaib,  he  can  neither  read  nor  write. 


§  223.  When  the  prepositions  aa,  no,  Ha,  H3i>,  CT>,  BT>  are  joined 
with  other  parts  of  speech,  and  thus  form  adverbs  or  conjunctions, 
they  are  written  conjointly  with  the  word  to  which  they  are  joined  : 
Ex.  3#H'i>M'b,  sarkMt,  rcoioMy,  /royipy,  /^npHM-fep-b,  /faKanynii,  the  day 
before ;  ^ciapn,  of  old ;  cnaHaja,  CHHay,  ceepxy,  <mn3^,  ffBepxy, 
tfnpaBO,  trnpoHeMT.,  WflKOfleivb,  &c.  But  if  these  prepositions  do  not 
form  adverbs  or  conjunctions,  and  govern  some  one  case  or  another, 
then  they  are  written  separately :  Ex.  3a  rfeMT>  ca/jOMT.  Hamt  flOMt, 
Our  house  (is)  behind  that  garden ;  IIofiAy  no  TOMy  6epery,  I  will  go 
along  that  bank ;  CMoipa  na  npHM'fep'b  466pbixt  TOBapnmeu,  Look  to 
the  example  of  good  companions;  OHT>  yixajt  co  BctMt  CBOHMT. 
ceMewcTBOMT.,  He  went  away  with  his  whole  family  ;  &c. 

§  224.  The  conditional  conjunction,  6bi  (6i>)  is  only  joined  in  the 
two  following  instances :  HTO£W,  #a6bh  In  all  others  it  is  written 
separately :  Ex.  H  npHffle.n>  6bi  KI>  BaMT,,  eoin  6bi  ninijt  BpeMff,  I 
would  have  come  to  you  if  I  had  had  time. 

§  225.  The  copulative  conjunction  ate  (JKT>)  before  various  parts 
of  speech  is  written  separately :  Ex.  TOTL  ace,  OAHaKO  ate,  HTO  HTL,  HAH 
JKe,  CMOipn  ate.  It  is  also  written  separately  in  the  comparative 
conjunction  Tain,  ate:  Ex.  PnMjflHe  6b'un  TaFb  ate  cxiaBHbi,  KaKi>  H 
rpeKH,  The  Romans  were  as  famous  as  the  Greeks.  But  in  the 
case  of  the  copulative  conjunction  Tanase  it  is  not  separated :  Ex. 
fl  TaiOKe  ObUT,  BT>  IleTepro^i,  I  was  also  at  Peterhoff.  The  word 
Toate,  when  it  implies  uniformity,  is  written  conjointly :  Ex.  fl  Toase 
noi^y,  I  likewise  will  go.  But  when  it  is  used  as  a  pronoun  it  is 
written  separately :  Ex.  OHT>  TO  ate  OTB-fenaJi,  Mnij  HTO  H  BaMX,  He 
answered  me  the  same  as  he  did  you. 

COPULATIVES. 

§  226.  A  hyphen  is  called  a  copulative  (anaia  coe^HHHTeJbHbiH), 
and  it  may  serve  to  connect  two  or  more  separate  words  :  Ex. 
TeHepai'b-a^'biOTaHTi,  General  Aide-de-camp ;  ^ifoHK 
physico-mathematical. 

§  227.  Copulatives  may  connect — 

(1)  Two  nouns  substantive:  Ex.  IeHepa.n>-<i>e.ibAMapuia.rb, 
O'fHijep'b,  General  Field-Marshal,  superior  officer,  &c. 

(2)  Two  adjectives :  Ex.  CfjBepo-AMepHKaHCKie  niiarbi,  North- 
American    States.      Likewise   adjectives   with  substantives :    Ex. 

,,  Lower  Kamtchatsa,  &c. 


(     120     ) 

(3)  Numerals    with     adjectives  :     Ex.    Tpexij-yroJLHbiH,    tri- 
angular, &c. 

(4)  Prepositions  with  various  parts  of  speech,  i.  e.  when  such 
a    union   forms   an   adverb:    no-pyccKH,   in    Russian;    no-6paTtiiii, 
after  the  manner  of  brothers;  no-MoeMV,  in  my  way;  BO-Biopbix'b, 
secondly,  &c. 

(5)  Compound  prepositions,  such  as  H3t-3a,  HSt-no^T.,  &c. 

(6)  The  conjunctions  TO,  .1660,  with  various  parts  of  speech  : 
Ex.  KTO-TO,  KaKoH-io,  rfli-TO,  KTO-.iH&'o,  Kor£a-.iH6o. 

§  228.  Copulatives,  or  hyphens,  serve  also  to  connect  words 
which  are  disjointed  by  being  carried  on  from  one  line  to  another, 
and  of  this  mention  is  made  below. 

DISJOINTING  OF  WORDS. 

§  229.  In  carrying  on  words  from  one  line  to  another,  the 
following  rules  should  be  observed  :  — 

o 

(1)  To   carry  on   regular   syllables:    Ex.    6.ia-ro-pa-3yM-Hbiii 
ne-.io-BTiK'B,  discreet  man. 

(2)  In  compound  words,  or  those  made  up  with  other  parts  of 
speech,  to  disjoint  their  component  parts:  Ex.   LJapb-rpaj'b,  HOB- 
ropoA'B,  Boc-xoflt,  MOpe-xoAi.,  orL-fe^L,  &c. 

(3)  Words  of  one  syllable  cannot  be  carried  on  from  one  line 
to  another:  Ex.  rpo-MT>  (rpOMt),  CTpa-cn>  (opacTb),  BOJ-KT,  (BO.IKT>), 


(4)   One  letter  only  of  polysyllabic  words  cannot  be  transferred 
to  another  line  :  Ex.  apiui-a, 


CONTRACTION  OF  WORDS. 

§  230.  Contracted  words  must  end  ordinarily  in  a  consonant  : 
Ex.  HMJI  npnj.  (npH.!ara>re.ii>Hoe),  MVJK.  poA.,  MBOJK.  IHC.I.,  ^aT.  034. 

§  231.  The  following  comprise  the  more  commonly  used  contrac- 
tions: —  r.  (rocnoAHHt),  r-JKa(rocnoaia),  M.  r.  (MIIJOCTHBEIH  rocyAapb), 
nanp,  (HanpHMtpt),  T.  e.  (TO  CCTL),  H  npOH.  (H  nponee),  n.T.  4.  (H 
Tain>  4ajie),  H.  T.  n.  (H  TOMy  noAoSfloe),  c.  n.6.  (CaHKTnerepo'yprb),  no 
P.  X.  (no  PojKyjecTBTi  XpHCTOBOMi.)  ,  OTi>  C.  M.  (oTi,  CoTBOpenifi  Mipa), 

BM.  (flMtCTO). 

THE   END. 


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